1 The Three Poles Advances in Remote Sensing in Relation to Spheres of the Planet Earth

Manish Pandey1,2,*, Prem C. Pandey3, Yogesh Ray4, Aman Arora5, Shridhar Digambar, Jawak6, and Uma Kant Shukla7

1 University Center for Research & Development (UCRD), Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University Institute of Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India 3 School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar Institution of Eminence, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201314, India 4 National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, Vasco-da-Gama, India 5 Bihar Mausam Seva Kendra, Planning and Development Department, Government of Bihar, Patna 800015, Bihar6 SIOS – Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System, University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway7 Center for Advanced Study in Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India* Corresponding author

1.1 Introduction

Planet Earth functions as an integrated, complex, adaptive system (Steffen et al., 2020) composed of dynamic and interdependent sub-systems making life possible and sustaining it (Mahaffy et al., 2018). The scale of operation of the systems/sub-systems of the Earth vary from interplanetary through intra-planetary to sub-planetary levels. Miller and Miller (1982) have included everything necessary about this planet as a system when they state, “The Planet Earth, from its ...

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