O'Reilly logo

Algorithms in Computational Molecular Biology: Techniques, Approaches and Applications by Albert Y. Zomaya, Mourad Elloumi

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

CHAPTER 31

HETEROGENEITY OF DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION IN CANCER STUDIES: ALGORITHMS AND METHODS

Radha Krishna Murthy Karuturi

31.1 INTRODUCTION

Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells evading apoptosis. It is a result of the failure of cell cycle control and apoptosis functions combined with an increased proliferation activity. Tumor formation and its progression to cancer causes major complex changes to the cells’ maps of genome, transcriptome, and pathway regulation [10, 34, 35]. For example, the genomes of cancer cells, compared with that of normal cells, contain extra copies of some chromosomal segments as a result of duplication, translocation, and deletion of some regions of the genome [34, 35]. Erratic genomic changes and cell cycle regulation lead to different pathways being activated and different sets of genes coming into play in defining the state of the cells. The changes depend on many factors related to the patient such as the genetic makeup and the stage of the tumor. For example, Grade3 tumors will have many more structural variations (amplifications and deletions) in their genomes and a stronger expression of proliferation associated genes compared with Grade1 tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumor progression may be facilitated by different transcription factors and pathways compared with ER– tumors. Similarly, p53+ tumors grow potentially because of deregulation of the pathways downstream of p53, whereas the p53– tumors grow because of the deregulation ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required