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Analysis and Design of Transimpedance Amplifiers for Optical Receivers

Book Description

An up-to-date, comprehensive guide for advanced electrical engineering studentsand electrical engineers working in the IC and optical industries

This book covers the major transimpedance amplifier (TIA) topologies and their circuit implementations for optical receivers. This includes the shunt-feedback TIA, common-base TIA, common-gate TIA, regulated-cascode TIA, distributed-amplifier TIA, nonresistive feedback TIA, current-mode TIA, burst-mode TIA, and analog-receiver TIA. The noise, transimpedance, and other performance parameters of these circuits are analyzed and optimized. Topics of interest include post amplifiers, differential vs. single-ended TIAs, DC input current control, and adaptive transimpedance. The book features real-world examples of TIA circuits for a variety of receivers (direct detection, coherent, burst-mode, etc.) implemented in a broad array of technologies (HBT, BiCMOS, CMOS, etc.). 

The book begins with an introduction to optical communication systems, signals, and standards. It then moves on to discussions of optical fiber and photodetectors. This discussion includes p-i-n photodetectors; avalanche photodetectors (APD); optically preamplified detectors; integrated detectors, including detectors for silicon photonics; and detectors for phase-modulated signals, including coherent detectors. This is followed by coverage of the optical receiver at the system level: the relationship between noise, sensitivity, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), and bit-error rate (BER) is explained; receiver impairments, such as intersymbol interference (ISI), are covered. In addition, the author presents TIA specifications and illustrates them with example values from recent product data sheets. The book also includes:

  • Many numerical examples throughout that help make the material more concrete for readers
  • Real-world product examples that show the performance of actual IC designs
  • Chapter summaries that highlight the key points
  • Problems and their solutions for readers who want to practice and deepen their understanding of the material
  • Appendices that cover communication signals, eye diagrams, timing jitter, nonlinearity, adaptive equalizers, decision point control, forward error correction (FEC), and second-order low-pass transfer functions

Analysis and Design of Transimpedance Amplifiers for OpticalReceivers belongs on the reference shelves of every electrical engineer working in the IC and optical industries. It also can serve as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying integrated circuit design and optical communication. 

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
    1. References
  6. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Optical Transceivers
    2. 1.2 Modulation Formats
    3. 1.3 Transmission Modes
    4. References
  7. Chapter 2: Optical Fibers
    1. 2.1 Loss and Bandwidth
    2. 2.2 Dispersion
    3. 2.3 Nonlinearities
    4. 2.4 Pulse Spreading due to Chromatic Dispersion
    5. 2.5 Summary
    6. Problems
    7. References
  8. Chapter 3: Photodetectors
    1. 3.1 p–i–n Photodetector
    2. 3.2 Avalanche Photodetector
    3. 3.3 p–i–n Detector with Optical Preamplifier
    4. 3.4 Integrated Photodetectors
    5. 3.5 Detectors for Phase-Modulated Optical Signals
    6. 3.6 Summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  9. Chapter 4: Receiver Fundamentals
    1. 4.1 Receiver Model
    2. 4.2 Noise and Bit-Error Rate
    3. 4.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
    4. 4.4 Sensitivity
    5. 4.5 Noise Bandwidths and Personick Integrals
    6. 4.6 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio
    7. 4.7 Power Penalty
    8. 4.8 Intersymbol Interference and Bandwidth
    9. 4.9 Frequency Response
    10. 4.10 Summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  10. Chapter 5: Transimpedance Amplifier Specifications
    1. 5.1 Transimpedance
    2. 5.2 Input Overload Current
    3. 5.3 Maximum Input Current for Linear Operation
    4. 5.4 Bandwidth
    5. 5.5 Phase Linearity and Group-Delay Variation
    6. 5.6 Timing Jitter
    7. 5.7 Input-Referred Noise Current
    8. 5.8 Crosstalk
    9. 5.9 Product Examples
    10. 5.10 Summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  11. chapter 6: Basic Transimpedance Amplifier Design
    1. 6.1 Low- and High-Impedance Front-Ends
    2. 6.2 Shunt-Feedback TIA
    3. 6.3 Noise Analysis
    4. 6.4 Noise Optimization
    5. 6.5 Noise Matching
    6. 6.6 Summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  12. Chapter 7: Advanced Transimpedance Amplifier Design I
    1. 7.1 TIA with Post Amplifier
    2. 7.2 TIA with Differential Inputs and Outputs
    3. 7.3 TIA with DC Input Current Control
    4. 7.4 TIA with Adaptive Transimpedance
    5. 7.5 Common-Base and Common-Gate TIAs
    6. 7.6 Regulated-Cascode TIA
    7. 7.7 TIA with Inductive Broadbanding
    8. 7.8 Distributed-Amplifier TIA
    9. 7.9 Summary
    10. Problems
    11. References
  13. Chapter 8: Advanced Transimpedance Amplifier Design II
    1. 8.1 TIA with Nonresistive Feedback
    2. 8.2 Current-Mode TIA
    3. 8.3 TIA with Bootstrapped Photodetector
    4. 8.4 Burst-Mode TIA
    5. 8.5 Analog Receiver TIA
    6. 8.6 Summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  14. Chapter 9: Transimpedance Amplifier Circuit Examples
    1. 9.1 BJT, HBT, and BiCMOS Circuits
    2. 9.2 CMOS Circuits
    3. 9.3 MESFET and HFET Circuits
    4. 9.4 Summary
    5. References
  15. Appendix A: Communication Signals
    1. A.1 Non-Return-to-Zero Signal
    2. A.2 Return-to-Zero Signal
    3. A.3 Pulse Amplitude-Modulated Signal
    4. A.4 Analog Television Signal
    5. A.5 Digital Television Signal
    6. References
  16. Appendix B: Eye Diagrams
    1. References
  17. Appendix C: Timing Jitter
    1. C.1 Data Jitter
    2. C.2 Clock Jitter
    3. C.3 Jitter, Phase Noise, and Bit-Error Rate
    4. Problems
    5. References
  18. Appendix D: Nonlinearity
    1. D.1 Gain Compression
    2. D.2 Harmonic Distortions
    3. D.3 Intermodulation Distortions
    4. D.4 Composite Distortions
    5. Problems
    6. References
  19. Appendix E: Adaptive Equalizers
    1. E.1 Feedforward and Decision-Feedback Equalizers
    2. E.2 Adaptation Algorithms
    3. E.3 Hardware Implementations
    4. Problems
    5. References
  20. Appendix F: Decision-Point Control
    1. Problems
    2. References
  21. Appendix G: Forward Error Correction
    1. Problems
    2. References
  22. Appendix H: Second-Order Low-Pass Transfer Functions
    1. References
  23. Appendix I: Answers to the Problems
    1. References
  24. Appendix J: Notation
  25. Appendix K: Symbols
    1. Latin Symbols
    2. Greek Symbols
    3. Special Symbols
  26. Appendix L: Acronyms
  27. Index
  28. End User License Agreement