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Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fifth Edition

Book Description

The Leading Integrated Chemical Process Design Guide: With Extensive Coverage of Equipment Design and Other Key Topics

 

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fifth Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates the big-picture and small details, and knows which to stress when and why. Realistic from start to finish, it moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world problem solving. The authors introduce up-to-date, integrated techniques ranging from finance to operations, and new plant design to existing process optimization.

 

The fifth edition includes updated safety and ethics resources and economic factors indices, as well as an extensive, new section focused on process equipment design and performance, covering equipment design for common unit operations, such as fluid flow, heat transfer, separations, reactors, and more.

  • Conceptualization and analysis: process diagrams, configurations, batch processing, product design, and analyzing existing processes
  • Economic analysis: estimating fixed capital investment and manufacturing costs, measuring process profitability, and more
  • Synthesis and optimization: process simulation, thermodynamic models, separation operations, heat integration, steady-state and dynamic process simulators, and process regulation
  • Chemical equipment design and performance: a full section of expanded and revamped coverage of designing process equipment and evaluating the performance of current equipment
  • Advanced steady-state simulation: goals, models, solution strategies, and sensitivity and optimization results
  • Dynamic simulation: goals, development, solution methods, algorithms, and solvers
  • Societal impacts: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, environmental issues, and green engineering
  • Interpersonal and communication skills: working in teams, communicating effectively, and writing better reports

This text draws on a combined 55 years of innovative instruction at West Virginia University (WVU) and the University of Nevada, Reno. It includes suggested curricula for one- and two-semester design courses, case studies, projects, equipment cost data, and extensive preliminary design information for jump-starting more detailed analyses..

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. About This E-Book
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Contents at a glance
  7. Preface
  8. About the Authors
  9. List of Nomenclature
  10. Chapter 0 Outcomes Assessment
    1. 0.1 Student Self-Assessment
    2. 0.2 Assessment by Faculty
    3. 0.3 Summary
    4. References
  11. SECTION I Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
    1. Chapter 1 Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes
      1. 1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
      2. 1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
      3. 1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
      4. 1.4 Additional Diagrams
      5. 1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process
      6. 1.6 The 3-D Plant Model
      7. 1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators
      8. 1.8 Summary
      9. References
      10. Short Answer Questions
      11. Problems
    2. Chapter 2 The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams
      1. 2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design
      2. 2.2 Step 1—Batch versus Continuous Process
      3. 2.3 Step 2—The Input/Output Structure of the Process
      4. 2.4 Step 3—The Recycle Structure of the Process
      5. 2.5 Step 4—General Structure of the Separation System
      6. 2.6 Step 5—Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System
      7. 2.7 Information Required and Sources
      8. 2.8 Summary
      9. References
      10. Short Answer Questions
      11. Problems
    3. Chapter 3 Batch Processing
      1. 3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes
      2. 3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling
      3. 3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times
      4. 3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants
      5. 3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units
      6. 3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes
      7. 3.7 Summary
      8. References
      9. Short Answer Questions
      10. Problems
    4. Chapter 4 Chemical Product Design
      1. 4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design
      2. 4.2 Needs
      3. 4.3 Ideas
      4. 4.4 Selection
      5. 4.5 Manufacture
      6. 4.6 Batch Processing
      7. 4.7 Economic Considerations
      8. 4.8 Summary
      9. References
    5. Chapter 5 Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram
      1. 5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals
      2. 5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process
      3. 5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams
      4. 5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals
      5. 5.5 Limitations
      6. 5.6 Written Process Description
      7. 5.7 Summary
      8. Problems
    6. Chapter 6 Understanding Process Conditions
      1. 6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems
      2. 6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern
      3. 6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment
      4. 6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions
      5. 6.5 Summary
      6. References
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Problems
  12. SECTION II Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes
    1. Chapter 7 Estimation of Capital Costs
      1. 7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates
      2. 7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs
      3. 7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant
      4. 7.4 Estimation of Plant Costs Based on Capacity Information
      5. 7.5 Summary
      6. References
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Problems
    2. Chapter 8 Estimation of Manufacturing Costs
      1. 8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product
      2. 8.2 Cost of Operating Labor
      3. 8.3 Utility Costs
      4. 8.4 Raw Material Costs
      5. 8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors
      6. 8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD
      7. 8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams
      8. 8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene
      9. 8.9 Summary
      10. References
      11. Short Answer Questions
      12. Problems
    3. Chapter 9 Engineering Economic Analysis
      1. 9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money
      2. 9.2 Different Types of Interest
      3. 9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations
      4. 9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams
      5. 9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams
      6. 9.6 Inflation
      7. 9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment
      8. 9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit
      9. 9.9 Summary
      10. References
      11. Short Answer Questions
      12. Problems
    4. Chapter 10 Profitability Analysis
      1. 10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project
      2. 10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation
      3. 10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis
      4. 10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk
      5. 10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives
      6. 10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities
      7. 10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability
      8. 10.8 Profit Margin Analysis
      9. 10.9 Summary
      10. References
      11. Short Answer Questions
      12. Problems
  13. SECTION III Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
    1. Chapter 11 Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design
      1. 11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process
      2. 11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines
      3. 11.3 Summary
      4. List of Informational Tables
      5. References
      6. Problems
    2. Chapter 12 Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD
      1. 12.1 Information Needs and Sources
      2. 12.2 Reactor Section
      3. 12.3 Separator Section
      4. 12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections
      5. 12.5 Recycle Section
      6. 12.6 Environmental Control Section
      7. 12.7 Major Process Control Loops
      8. 12.8 Flow Summary Table
      9. 12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table
      10. 12.10 Summary
      11. References
      12. General Reference
      13. Problems
    3. Chapter 13 Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting
      1. 13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator
      2. 13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data
      3. 13.3 Handling Recycle Streams
      4. 13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models
      5. 13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process
      6. 13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling
      7. 13.7 Solids Modeling
      8. Appendix 13.1
      9. Appendix 13.2
      10. 13.8 Summary
      11. References
      12. Short Answer Questions
      13. Problems
    4. Chapter 14 Process Optimization
      1. 14.1 Background Information on Optimization
      2. 14.2 Strategies
      3. 14.3 Topological Optimization
      4. 14.4 Parametric Optimization
      5. 14.5 Lattice Search, Response Surface, and Mathematical Optimization Techniques
      6. 14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum
      7. 14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems
      8. 14.8 Summary
      9. References
      10. Short Answer Questions
      11. Problems
    5. Chapter 15 Pinch Technology
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design
      3. 15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram
      4. 15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch
      5. 15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area
      6. 15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells
      7. 15.7 Combining Costs to Give the EAOC for the Network
      8. 15.8 Other Considerations
      9. 15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program
      10. 15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks
      11. 15.11 Summary
      12. References
      13. Short Answer Questions
      14. Problems
    6. Chapter 16 Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators
      1. 16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation?
      2. 16.2 User-Added Models
      3. 16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations
      4. 16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation
      5. 16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters
      6. 16.6 Summary
      7. References
      8. Short Answer Questions
      9. Problems
    7. Chapter 17 Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design
      1. 17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation?
      2. 17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation
      3. 17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods
      4. 17.4 Process Control
      5. 17.5 Summary
      6. References
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Problems
    8. Chapter 18 Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software
      1. 18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem
      2. 18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves
      3. 18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures
      4. 18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables
      5. 18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes
      6. 18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams
      7. 18.7 Logic Control
      8. 18.8 Advanced Process Control
      9. 18.9 Case Studies
      10. 18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS)
      11. 18.11 Summary
      12. References
      13. Problems
  14. SECTION IV Chemical Equipment Design and Performance Process Equipment Design and Performance
    1. Chapter 19 Process Fluid Mechanics
      1. 19.1 Basic Relationships in Fluid Mechanics
      2. 19.2 Fluid Flow Equipment
      3. 19.3 Frictional Pipe Flow
      4. 19.4 Other Flow Situations
      5. 19.5 Performance of Fluid Flow Equipment
      6. References
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Problems
    2. Chapter 20 Process Heat Transfer
      1. 20.1 Basic Heat-Exchanger Relationships
      2. 20.2 Heat-Exchange Equipment Design and Characteristics
      3. 20.3 LMTD Correction Factor for Multiple Shell and Tube Passes
      4. 20.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients—Resistances in Series
      5. 20.5 Estimation of Individual Heat Transfer Coefficients and Fouling Resistances
      6. 20.6 Extended Surfaces
      7. 20.7 Algorithm and Worked Examples for the Design of Heat Exchangers
      8. 20.8 Performance Problems
      9. References
      10. Appendix 20.A Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness Charts
      11. Appendix 20.B Derivation of Fin Effectiveness for a Rectangular Fin
      12. Short Answer Questions
      13. Problems
    3. Chapter 21 Separation Equipment
      1. 21.1 Basic Relationships in Separations
      2. 21.2 Illustrative Diagrams
      3. 21.3 Equipment
      4. Case Study
      5. 21.4 Extraction Equipment
      6. 21.5 Gas Permeation Membrane Separations
      7. References
      8. Short Answer Questions
      9. Problems
    4. Chapter 22 Reactors
      1. 22.1 Basic Relationships
      2. 22.2 Equipment Design for Nonisothermal Conditions
      3. 22.3 Performance Problems
      4. References
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Problems
    5. Chapter 23 Other Equipment
      1. 23.1 Pressure Vessels
      2. 23.2 Knockout Drums or Simple Phase Separators
      3. 23.3 Steam Ejectors
      4. References
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Problems
    6. Chapter 24 Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking
      1. 24.1 Recommended Methodology
      2. 24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units
      3. 24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units
      4. 24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem
      5. 24.5 Debottlenecking Problems
      6. 24.6 Summary
      7. References
      8. Problems
  15. SECTION V The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
    1. Chapter 25 Ethics and Professionalism
      1. 25.1 Ethics
      2. 25.2 Professional Registration
      3. 25.3 Legal Liability [13]
      4. 25.4 Business Codes of Conduct [14,15]
      5. 25.5 Summary
      6. References
      7. Problems
    2. Chapter 26 Health, Safety, and the Environment
      1. 26.1 Risk Assessment
      2. 26.2 Regulations and Agencies
      3. 26.3 Fires and Explosions
      4. 26.4 Process Hazard Analysis
      5. 26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
      6. 26.6 Inherently Safe Design
      7. 26.7 Summary
      8. 26.8 Glossary
      9. References
      10. Problems
    3. Chapter 27 Green Engineering
      1. 27.1 Environmental Regulations
      2. 27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals
      3. 27.3 Green Chemistry
      4. 27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design
      5. 27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance
      6. 27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention
      7. 27.7 Life Cycle Analysis
      8. 27.8 Summary
      9. References
      10. Problems
  16. SECTION VI Interpersonal and Communication Skills
    1. Chapter 28 Teamwork
      1. 28.1 Groups
      2. 28.2 Group Evolution
      3. 28.3 Teams and Teamwork
      4. 28.4 Misconceptions
      5. 28.5 Learning in Teams
      6. 28.6 Other Reading
      7. 28.7 Summary
      8. References
      9. Problems
    2. Chapter 29 Written and Oral Communication
      1. 29.1 Audience Analysis
      2. 29.2 Written Communication
      3. 29.3 Oral Communication
      4. 29.4 Software and Author Responsibility
      5. 29.5 Summary
      6. References
      7. Problems
    3. Chapter 30 A Report-Writing Case Study
      1. 30.1 The Assignment Memorandum
      2. 30.2 Response Memorandum
      3. 30.3 Visual Aids
      4. 30.4 Example Reports
      5. 30.5 Checklist of Common Mistakes and Errors
  17. Appendix A Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program
    1. A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs
    2. A.2 Pressure Factors
    3. A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors
    4. References
  18. Appendix B Information for the Preliminary Design of Fifteen Chemical Processes
    1. B.1 Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production, Unit 200
    2. B.2 Ethylbenzene Production, Unit 300
    3. B.3 Styrene Production, Unit 400
    4. B.4 Drying Oil Production, Unit 500
    5. B.5 Production of Maleic Anhydride from Benzene, Unit 600
    6. B.6 Ethylene Oxide Production, Unit 700
    7. B.7 Formalin Production, Unit 800
    8. B.8 Batch Production of L-Phenylalanine and L-Aspartic Acid, Unit 900
    9. B.9 Acrylic Acid Production via The Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Propylene [1–5], Unit 1000
    10. B.10 Production of Acetone via the Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) [1–4], Unit 1100
    11. B.11 Production of Heptenes from Propylene and Butenes [1], Unit 1200
    12. B.12 Design of a Shift Reactor Unit to Convert CO to CO2, Unit 1300
    13. B.13 Design of a Dual-Stage Selexol Unit to Remove CO2 and H2S From Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas, Unit 1400
    14. B.14 Design of a Claus Unit for the Conversion of H2S to Elemental Sulfur, Unit 1500
    15. B.15 Modeling a Downward-Flow, Oxygen-Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier, Unit 1600
  19. Appendix C Design Projects
    1. Project 1 Increasing the Production of 3-Chloro-1-Propene (Allyl Chloride) in Unit 600
      1. C.1.1 Background
      2. C.1.2 Process Description of the Beaumont Allyl Chloride Facility
      3. C.1.3 Specific Objectives of Assignment
      4. C.1.4 Additional Background Information
      5. C.1.5 Process Design Calculations
    2. Project 2 Design and Optimization of a New 20,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Facility to Produce Allyl Chloride at La Nueva Cantina, Mexico
      1. C.2.1 Background
      2. C.2.2 Assignment
      3. C.2.3 Problem-Solving Methodology
      4. C.2.4 Process Information
    3. Project 3 Scale-Down of Phthalic Anhydride Production at TBWS Unit 700
      1. C.3.1 Background
      2. C.3.2 Phthalic Anhydride Production
      3. C.3.3 Other Information
      4. C.3.4 Assignment
      5. C.3.5 Report Format
    4. Project 4 The Design of a New 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Phthalic Anhydride Production Facility
      1. C.4.1 Background
      2. C.4.2 Other Information
      3. C.4.3 Assignment
      4. C.4.4 Report Format
    5. Project 5 Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800
      1. C.5.1 Background
      2. C.5.2 Cumene Production Reactions
      3. C.5.3 Process Description
      4. C.5.4 Recent Problems in Unit 800
      5. C.5.5 Other Information
      6. C.5.6 Assignment
      7. C.5.7 Report Format
      8. C.5.8 Process Calculations
    6. Project 6 Design of a New, 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Cumene Production Facility
      1. C.6.1 Background
      2. C.6.2 Assignment
      3. C.6.3 Report Format
  20. Index