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Antenna Design For Mobile Devices by Zhijun Zhang

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Chapter 6

Regulations Related to Antenna Engineers

There are three regulations which are of relevance to antenna engineers. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) regulates the maximum power density inside human bodies when a phone is used. The Hearing Aid Compatibility (HAC) regulates the maximum value of the E and H fields, which can interfere with the proper functionality of a hearing aid, around a phone's speaker. Both E and H fields regulated by the HAC are near field. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) or electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulates the maximum E field that can radiate into the surrounding environment. The E field regulated by the EMI is a far field which can interfere with the surrounding equipment. Most test procedures can be found on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) web site [1].

6.1 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)

There is a good reference book on the history of safety issues related to communication devices: Handbook of Antennas in Wireless Communications, edited by Lal Chand Godara [2]. Chapter 26, “Safety Aspects of Radio Frequency Effects in Humans from Communication Devices,” authored by Alan W. Preece, provides a comprehensive overview on the issue. More information can also be found in the “Telecommunication Health & Safety” column in the IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine.

As a brief summary, there is no consistent and solid evidence to support claims of nonthermal effects, such as brain tumors, DNA damage, and so on, when a biology ...

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