6Regulations Related to Antenna Engineers

There are three regulations which are of relevance to antenna engineers. The specific absorption rate (SAR) regulates the maximum power density inside human bodies when a phone is used. The hearing aid compatibility (HAC) regulates the maximum value of the electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields, which can interfere with the proper functionality of a hearing aid, around a phone’s speaker. Both E and H fields regulated by the HAC are near field. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) or EM compatibility (EMC) regulates the maximum E field that can radiate into the surrounding environment. The E field regulated by the EMI is a far field which can interfere with the surrounding equipment. Most test procedures can be found on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) website [1].

6.1 Specific Absorption Rate

There is a good reference book on the history of safety issues related to communication devices: Handbook of Antennas in Wireless Communications, edited by Lal Chand Godara [2]. Chapter 26, “Safety Aspects of Radio Frequency Effects in Humans from Communication Devices,” authored by Alan W. Preece, provides a comprehensive overview on the issue. More information can also be found in the “Telecommunication Health and Safety” column in the IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine.

As a brief summary, there is no consistent and solid evidence to support claims of nonthermal effects, such as brain tumors, DNA damage, and so on, when a biology object ...

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