**“Mathematics is the backbone of all branches of Sciences and Engineering.”**

This chapter discusses

- Coordinate systems
- Vector algebra and calculus
- Series and identities
- Determinants and matrices
- Trigonometry
- Differential and Integral formulae
- Antenna related scalar and vector quantities
- Objective questions and solved problems useful for class tests, final examinations and also for competitive examinations
- Exercise problems to develop self problem solving skills

A **scalar** has magnitude and an algebraic sign.

For example, temperature, mass, charge, work and so on.

A **vector** has both magnitude and direction.

For example, velocity, force, electric field, ...

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