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# Mathematical Background

## 11.1 INFORMATION THEORY

Modern information theory was first published in 1948 by Claude Elmwood Shannon [1431, 1432]. (His papers have been reprinted by the IEEE Press [1433].) For a good mathematical treatment of the topic, consult [593]. In this section, I will just sketch some important ideas.

### Entropy and Uncertainty

Information theory defines the amount of information in a message as the minimum number of bits needed to encode all possible meanings of that message, assuming all messages are equally likely. For example, the day-of-the-week field in a database contains no more than 3 bits of information, because the information can be encoded with 3 bits:

If this information were represented by corresponding ASCII character strings, it would take up more memory space but would not contain any more information. Similarly, the “sex” field of a database contains only 1 bit of information, even though it might be stored as one of two 6-byte ASCII strings: “MALE” or “FEMALE.”

Formally, the amount of information in a message M is measured by the entropy of a message, denoted by H(M). The entropy of a message indicating sex is 1 bit; the entropy of a message indicating the day of the week is slightly less than 3 bits. In general, the entropy of a message measured in bits is log2 n, in which n is the number of possible meanings. This assumes that each ...

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