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Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition by Bruce Schneier

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CHAPTER 9

Algorithm Types and Modes

There are two basic types of symmetric algorithms: block ciphers and stream ciphers. Block ciphers operate on blocks of plaintext and ciphertext—usually of 64 bits but sometimes longer. Stream ciphers operate on streams of plaintext and ciphertext one bit or byte (sometimes even one 32-bit word) at a time. With a block cipher, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext block, using the same key. With a stream cipher, the same plaintext bit or byte will encrypt to a different bit or byte every time it is encrypted.

A cryptographic mode usually combines the basic cipher, some sort of feedback, and some simple operations. The operations are simple because the security is a function of the underlying cipher and not the mode. Even more strongly, the cipher mode should not compromise the security of the underlying algorithm.

There are other security considerations: Patterns in the plaintext should be concealed, input to the cipher should be randomized, manipulation of the plaintext by introducing errors in the ciphertext should be difficult, and encryption of more than one message with the same key should be possible. These will be discussed in detail in the next sections.

Efficiency is another consideration. The mode should not be significantly less efficient than the underlying cipher. In some circumstances it is important that the ciphertext be the same size as the plaintext.

A third consideration is fault-tolerance. Some ...

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