© The Author(s), under exclusive license to APress Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
R. J. SmytheArduino in Sciencehttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-6778-3_5

5. Digital Signal Concepts and Digital Signal Outputs

Richard J. Smythe1  
Wainfleet, ON, Canada

Most of the sensors used in making biological, chemical, or physical measurements create a continuously variable analog electrical output, while computers and large-scale integrated circuits use high or low electrical energy levels to represent binary digital signals that they can process. Supervisory control and data acquisition programs must often function as bidirectional analog-to-digital electronic signal converters. This chapter will begin to develop the use of binary numbering and ...

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