Matrix theory and linear algebra overview

Before we try to understand SVD, here is a quick overview of linear algebra and matrix theory concepts. Although a comprehensive discussion on these topics is outside the scope of this book, a brief discussion is definitely in order:

  • Scalar: A single number is termed a scalar. A scalar represents the magnitude of an entity. For example, the speed of a car is 60 miles/hour. Here, the number 60 is a scalar. 
  • Vectors: An array of multiple scalars arranged in an order is called a vector. Typically, vectors define magnitude as well as direction, and are considered points in space. 
  • Matrix: This is a two-dimensional array of scalars. Each element of a matrix is represented by a coordinate index. A matrix ...

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