Chapter 2. Assessing Exposures to Nanomaterials in the Occupational Environment
Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ji Young Park and Peter C. Raynor

Chapter Outline

2.1 Nanotechnology and Nanoparticles22
2.2 Exposure Routes23
2.2.1 Inhalation23
2.2.2 Dermal25
2.2.3 Ingestion25
2.3 Measurement of Health-related Exposure Metrics26
2.4 Instrumentation31
2.4.1 Real-time Measurements33
Mass Concentration33
Number Concentration33
Surface Area Concentration34
2.4.2 Time-integrated Measurements36
2.5 Exposure Assessment Strategy37
2.5.1 Basic Characterization39
Workplace and Workforce39
Understanding Exposure Potential in Processes40
Characterizing Nanomaterials41
Background Particles and Incidental Nanomaterials42
2.5.2 Exposure Assessment44
Construction of Similar Exposure Groups ...

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