Chapter 3. Hazard and Risk Assessment of Workplace Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles
Methods, Issues, and Carbon Nanotube Case Study
Eileen Kuempel and Vincent Castranova

Chapter Outline

3.1 Introduction65
3.1.1 Risk Assessment Paradigm66
3.1.2 Hazard Assessment67
3.1.3 Dose–Response Assessment71
No Observed or Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Levels71
Benchmark Dose Methods72
Comparison of BMD versus NOAEL/LOAEL73
3.1.4 Temporal Extrapolation73
3.2 Case Study Example: Carbon Nanotubes74
3.2.1 Data Description74
3.2.2 Severity of Effects75
3.2.3 Risk Assessment Steps: Benchmark Dose Estimation77
3.3 Discussion83
3.3.1 Comparison to Other Methods83
3.3.2 Research Needs87
3.3.3 Future Directions88
3.4 Appendix: Pulmonary Ventilation Rate Calculations89
3.4.1 Rat Ventilation ...

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