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ASTD Handbook: The Definitive Reference for Training & Development (2nd Edition) by Elaine Biech

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Section IV

Delivering T&D Solutions That Make a Difference

Luminary Perspective

Bob Pike

Reread the title for this section of the Handbook. There’s one word that stands out for me. What’s your guess? If you guessed difference, you’re right. And where do you think the word difference came from? It might have come from a variety of places, but it is used most often and, in my opinion, most significantly in Don Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation model. Here is his model—and my interpretation of it:

 KirkpatrickMy Interpretation
Level 1ReactionDid they like it? (smile sheets)
Level 2LearningDid they learn it? (testing)
Level 3BehaviorDid they use it? (on-the-job observation)
Level 4ResultsDid it make a difference? (pre-/post-intervention benchmarking) ...

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