Network protocols transfer information between participants in a network, and there’s a good chance that information is sensitive. Whether the information includes credit card details or top secret information from government systems, it’s important to provide security. Engineers consider many requirements for security when they initially design a protocol, but vulnerabilities often surface over time, especially when a protocol is used on public networks where anyone monitoring traffic can attack it.

All secure protocols should do the following:

• Maintain data confidentiality by protecting data from being read

• Maintain data integrity by protecting data from being modified

• Prevent an attacker from impersonating ...

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