Chapter 7

Test instruments and measurements

Audio equipment is, by definition, ultimately intended to provide sounds which will be heard by a listener. In spite of rather more than a century of experience in the electrical transmission and reception of audible signals, the relationships between the electrical waveforms into which sound patterns are transformed and the sound actually heard by the listener are still not fully understood.

This situation is complicated by the observable fact that there is a considerable variation from person to person in sensitivity to, and preferences in respect of, sound characteristics – particularly where these relate to modifications or distortions of the sound. Also, since the need to describe or indeed the possibility ...

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