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Automated Lighting, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Automated Lighting: The Art and Science of Moving and Color-Changing Lights, Third Edition (formerly Automated Lighting: The Art and Science of Moving Light) continues to be the most trusted text for working and aspiring lighting professionals. Now in its third edition, it has been fully updated to reflect the vast changes in stage and studio luminairies—including LEDs, switch-mode power supplies, optics, networking, Ethernet-based protocols like Art-Net and sACN, wireless DMX, and much more. Its written in clear, easy-to-understand language and includes enough detailed information to benefit for the most experienced technicians, programmers, and designers. Additional content and resources are provided at the author's website www.automatedlighting.pro.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. SECTION 1: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1 Stage Lighting in the Third Millennium
      1. Stage-Lighting Technology
      2. Wait, What Just Happened?
    2. Chapter 2 Foundations
      1. The Genesis of the Automated Lighting Industry
      2. Synchronicity
      3. “If We Can Make It Change Color … ”
      4. The Black Hole
      5. For Sale: Automated Lighting
      6. Sue Me, Sue You Blues
      7. The Future of Stage Lighting
    3. Chapter 3 Stage-Lighting Systems Overview
      1. Systems Overview
      2. Rigging Systems
        1. Aluminum Structures
        2. Theatrical Rigging
        3. Rigging Hardware
      3. Power Distribution Systems
        1. The Supply
        2. Disconnect Switch
        3. Feeder Cable
        4. Distribution Panels and Portable Power Distribution Units
        5. Overcurrent Protection
        6. Dimmers
        7. Branch Circuits or Final Circuits
        8. Connectors
        9. Worldwide Electrical Safety and Wiring Codes
        10. Compliance
        11. Wire Gauges
      4. Data Distribution Systems
        1. Data Cables
        2. Data Splitters
        3. Data Amplifiers
        4. Gateways
        5. Data Terminators
        6. Ring Protection
        7. DMX Connectors
      5. Control Systems
        1. Lighting Controllers
        2. PC-Based Controllers
        3. Dedicated Controllers
        4. Playback Units
        5. Remote Focus Units
        6. Preset Stations
        7. Media Servers
        8. Redundant Backup and Automatic Failover Systems
      6. Luminaires
        1. Electrical Systems
        2. Electronic Systems
        3. Electromechanical Systems
        4. Mechanical Systems
        5. Optical Systems
        6. Communications Systems
  9. SECTION 2: Electricity and Electronics
    1. Chapter 4 Circuits
      1. Electrical Current, Voltage, Resistance, Power, and Energy
      2. Circuits
      3. Current Convention
      4. Water and Electricity—Bad Mix, Good Analogy
      5. Ohm’s Law
        1. Practice Problems
      6. Reactance
      7. Impedance
      8. DC Power
        1. Practice Problems
      9. Power Factor
      10. AC Power
      11. Apparent Power
        1. Practice Problems
      12. Answers to Practice Problems
    2. Chapter 5 Electrical Planning and Preparation
      1. Laying Out the Lighting System
      2. Circuiting
      3. Connectors
      4. Documentation
    3. Chapter 6 Power Supplies
      1. Arc Lamp Power Supplies
      2. Switch-Mode Power Supplies
        1. Rectification and Filtering
        2. Pulse-Width Modulation
        3. Voltage Transformation
        4. High-Frequency Filtering
        5. Feedback
        6. Power Factor
        7. Pros and Cons of SMPSs
      3. Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies
      4. LED Drivers
      5. LED Connections
      6. Lamp Control
      7. EMI Filtering
      8. Lamp Cutoff Switch
    4. Chapter 7 Overcurrent, Overvoltage, and Overtemperature Protection
      1. Electric Fuses
        1. Fuse Ratings
        2. Voltage Rating
        3. Speed of Operation
      2. Temperature Sensing and Thermal Protection
      3. Surge Suppression
      4. Voltage Clamping Devices
    5. Chapter 8 Digital Electronics
      1. Binary Numbering
        1. Practice Problems
      2. Offsets
      3. DIP-Switch Conventions
        1. Practice Problems
      4. Hexadecimal Numbers
        1. Practice Problems
      5. Digital Electronics
      6. Electronic Switching
      7. Data Transmission
      8. Answers to Practice Problems
    6. Chapter 9 Digital Hardware and Software
      1. The Central Processing Unit
      2. Memory
      3. Firmware
      4. Firmware Updates
  10. SECTION 3: Electromechanical and Mechanical Systems
    1. Chapter 10 Electromechanical Systems
      1. Stepper Motors
        1. Hybrid Stepper Motors
        2. Single-Phase Excitation Mode
        3. Dual-Phase Excitation Mode
        4. Half-Step Excitation
        5. Microstepping
        6. Resonance
      2. Stepper Motor Control Systems
        1. Position Sensing and Encoding
        2. Mechanical Stops
        3. Optical Sensing
        4. Hall Effect Sensors
        5. Position Encoding
        6. Quadrature Encoding
        7. Absolute Encoding
    2. Chapter 11 Mechanical Systems
      1. Materials
        1. Aluminum
        2. Stainless Steel
        3. Plastics
        4. Glass
        5. Fused Quartz
        6. Optical Glass
      2. Metal Finishes
      3. Fasteners
      4. Thread Standards
      5. Preventing Vibrational Loosening
      6. Gears
      7. Belts
  11. SECTION 4: Optical Systems
    1. Chapter 12 Light Sources
      1. The Visible Spectrum
      2. Color Temperature
      3. Green/Magenta Balance
      4. Color Rendering
      5. Color Quality Scale
      6. TM-30
      7. Luminous Efficacy
      8. Lumen Depreciation
      9. Lamp Life Ratings
      10. LED Operation
        1. Color LEDs
        2. White-Light LEDs
        3. Multi-Color LEDs
      11. LED Light Engines
      12. LED Binning
      13. Gas Arc Lamps
        1. Arc Lamp Anatomy
        2. Starting an Arc Lamp
        3. Hot Restrike Lamps
        4. The Effects of Lamp Strikes
        5. Testing Arc Lamps
        6. Arc Lamp Spectral Distribution
        7. Arc Lamp Hazards
        8. Proper Disposal of Arc Lamps
        9. Mercury Spills
      14. Incandescent Lamps
        1. Incandescence
        2. Gas Fill
        3. Halogen Lamps
        4. Dimming Incandescent Lamps
      15. Lamp Handling Precautions
      16. Lamp Cooling
        1. Heat Sinks
        2. Fans
        3. Active Cooling
    2. Chapter 13 The Optical Path
      1. Specular Reflection
      2. LED Primary Optics
      3. Conventional Reflector Geometry
        1. Parabolic Reflectors
        2. Elliptical Reflectors
        3. Spherical Reflectors
      4. Reflector Materials
      5. Ultraviolet and Infrared Filters
      6. Optical Thin-Film Filters
        1. The Deposition Process
        2. Thin-Film Interference
        3. Filter Types
      7. Color Wheels
      8. Subtractive Color Mixing
      9. Additive Color Mixing
      10. Color Temperature Correction
      11. Gobos
        1. Metal Gobos
        2. Glass Gobos
      12. Diffusion
      13. Iris
      14. Animation Effects
      15. Beam Shapers
      16. Framing Shutters
      17. Effects
      18. Secondary Lenses
        1. Spherical Aberrations
        2. Chromatic Aberration
      19. Anti-Reflective Coatings
      20. First Surface Mirrors
  12. SECTION 5: Communications
    1. Chapter 14 DMX
      1. The DMX Physical Layer
        1. The Transceiver
        2. Data Cable
        3. DMX Over CAT5
        4. DMX Connectors
      2. Building a DMX Data Network
      3. Data Termination
      4. Self-Terminating Fixtures
      5. Wireless DMX
      6. DMX512-A Data Protocol
      7. Bi-Directional Communication
    2. Chapter 15 Remote Device Management (RDM)
      1. RDM Overview
      2. The RDM Physical Layer
      3. RDM Discovery
      4. RDM Get and Set Commands
      5. Practical RDM
    3. Chapter 16 Ethernet-Based Lighting Control
      1. Ethernet
        1. Types of Ethernet
        2. Ethernet Cabling
        3. Transmission Distances
      2. Network Switches
      3. IP Addresses
        1. Routable Versus Non-Routable IP Addresses
      4. Subnet Masks
      5. DHCP
      6. Art-Net
      7. Streaming ACN (sACN)
      8. DMX Universe Capability
      9. Troubleshooting Ethernet-Based Protocols
  13. SECTION 6: Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Repair
    1. Chapter 17 Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Repair
      1. Precautions and Hazards
        1. Shock Protection
        2. Eye and Skin Protection
      2. Common Sources of Failure: Heat, Shock, Age
      3. Fixture Test
      4. Error Logs
      5. Lamp Replacement and Alignment
      6. Calibration
      7. Updating Software
      8. Preventive Maintenance
        1. Visual Inspection
        2. Internal Cleaning
        3. Cleaning Fans and Filters
        4. Cleaning the Optics
        5. Housekeeping
        6. Lubrication
      9. Spare Parts
      10. Troubleshooting
      11. Troubleshooting Procedures
      12. General Troubleshooting Procedures
      13. Common Failures
        1. Printed Circuit Boards
        2. Motor Drive Chips
        3. Power Supplies
        4. Power Factor Correction Capacitors
        5. Fasteners
        6. Sensors
  14. SECTION 7: Lighting Console Programming
    1. Chapter 18 Lighting Console and FOH Setup
      1. Power Requirements
      2. Uninterruptable Power Supplies
      3. Physical Configuration
      4. Console Configuration Settings
      5. Setting Up a DMX System
      6. Setting Up the Network
      7. Configuring the Console
      8. Setting Up an Ethernet Network
      9. Testing the Network
      10. Setting Up a Console for Art-Net Output
        1. Port-Address
      11. Casting
      12. Setting Up a Console to Output sACN
      13. Port Monitoring
      14. Backup and Tracking
      15. MIDI and MSC
      16. Timecode
    2. Chapter 19 Lighting Console Programming
      1. Important Concepts
        1. DMX Universes
        2. Tracking Versus Preset
        3. Move Fade Versus State
        4. Precedence
        5. Priority and Assert
        6. User Input
        7. Syntax
        8. The Programmer
        9. Looks, Scenes, and Cues
      2. Basic Programming
        1. Patch the Fixtures
        2. Create Fixture Groups
        3. Create Presets and Palettes
        4. Record Cues
        5. Playback Cues
      3. Highlight
      4. Timing
      5. Fade Time or Crossfade Time
        1. Fade In Time
        2. Fade Out Time
        3. Wait Time
        4. Delay Time
        5. Follow-On Time
        6. Part Cues
      6. Point Cues
      7. Blocking Cues
      8. Mark Cues
      9. Storing Specific Parameters or Fixtures
      10. Backing Up
      11. Pre-Visualization and Off-Line Editing
      12. Program Blocking
      13. Pre-Show Preparation
      14. Rig Check
      15. Busking
      16. Perfecting the Craft
    3. Chapter 20 Lighting Design Software
      1. CAD
        1. CAD Workflow
        2. File Formats
        3. CAD Libraries
      2. Data and Attributes
        1. Instrument Type
        2. Power Consumption in Watts
        3. Purpose
        4. Position
        5. Unit Number
        6. Color
        7. Dimmer
        8. Channel
        9. DMX Universe
        10. DMX Address
        11. Circuit Number
        12. Circuit Name
        13. Number of Channels
        14. Frame Size
        15. Field Angles
        16. Beam Angles
        17. Luminous Flux
        18. Center Beam Luminous Intensity
        19. Weight
        20. Accessories
        21. Protocol
        22. DMX Mode or Personality
        23. IP Address
        24. Subnet Mask
        25. Art-Net Net
        26. Art-Net Subnet
      3. Lighting Paperwork
        1. Fixture or Instrument Schedules
        2. Panel Schedules
        3. Power Distribution Load Schedules
        4. Shop Order
      4. Software Applications
      5. Rendering
      6. Off-Line Editors
      7. Visualization
      8. Fly-Throughs
      9. Workflow
  15. SECTION 8: Convergence of Lighting and Video
    1. Chapter 21 Media Servers and Pixel Mapping
      1. Media Server Hardware
      2. Layers
      3. Content Library
      4. Resolution of Media
      5. File Formats and Codecs
        1. Codecs
        2. Scaling
        3. Frame Rate
        4. Interlacing
        5. Aspect Ratio
        6. Bitrate
      6. Parameters
        1. File Folder
        2. File Selection
        3. Play
        4. In Point, Out Point
        5. Playback Speed
        6. Rotate (X, Y, Z)
        7. Position (X, Y, Z)
        8. Intensity
        9. Opacity
        10. Crossfade
        11. Blend
        12. Color (Hue, Saturation, Contrast)
        13. Crop
        14. Mask
        15. Tiling
        16. Audio
        17. Strobe
        18. Edge Blending
        19. Keystone
      7. Pixel Mapping
      8. CITP
      9. Off-Line Editors and Visualizers
  16. Index