6 Design processes to achieve these objectives: this is addressed further on in this
chapter under a range of headings.
7 Install and resource the processes: this is addressed below.
8 Operate the processes as designed: this is addressed further on in this chapter under
the heading Implementing a quality management system and Managing processes.
9 Review the processes to establish whether the required objectives are being
achieved, whether they are being achieved in the most effective way and whether
they remain relevant to stakeholder needs; this is addressed further on in this chap-
ter under the heading Maintaining a quality management system and in Chapter 5
under the heading Management review.
10 Change processes to bring about improvement by better control, better utilization
of resources and better understanding of stakeholder needs. This is addressed fur-
ther on in this chapter under the heading Continual improvement in the quality
management system and its processes.
Identifying processes (4.1a)
The standard requires the organization to identify the processes needed for the quality
management system and their application throughout the organization.
What does this mean?
Processes produce results of added value. Processes are not procedures (see Chapter 1
on Basic concepts). The results needed are those that serve the organization’s objectives.
Processes needed for the management system might be all the processes needed to
achieve the organization’s objectives and will therefore form a chain of processes from
corporate goals to their accomplishment. However, as we discovered in Chapter 1, the
business processes need to add value for the interested parties. The chain of processes
is a value chain and therefore should extend from the needs of the interested parties to
the satisfaction of these needs. This is illustrated by the process model of Figure 1.15.
The phrase “needed for the quality management system” in this requirement implies
that there are processes that are needed for other purposes. It also implies that the
quality management system is something that needs processes rather than something
that comprises processes. The phrase is indeed ambiguous and needs rewording. A
better way of expressing the intent would be to say “identify the processes needed to
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