The work processes sit along a chain in the related business process and each has
measurable outputs. However, not all work processes are triggered by other work
processes. Sometimes a work process is triggered by a condition, a date, or a particular
type of demand. The work processes in the chain shown in Figure 4.1 are not always
the same processes, it depends on what triggers the input. Now, analyze each work
process and identify the activities that produce these outputs. Decomposing the layers
further, by analyzing each activity, will identify the tasks performed by specific individuals.
The tasks may be illustrated in a flow chart to show the sequence and interaction. This
is as deep in the hierarchy that you should need to go because when you have identified
a task performed by an individual, the methods can be described in procedures or guides.
The decomposition can therefore be illustrated as in Figure 4.3.
The top-down approach is explained in more detail in an e-book, A Guide to Process
Management.
2
Bottom-up approach
Take any group of tasks within a function and establish their relationships. Identify which
task feeds another with inputs. Bring in other groups when it is realized that there is a gap
in the chain. Extend the chain until you reach the tasks that interface with the external party
122 Quality management system
Organization
(system)
Business process
Work process
Activity
Task
Mission management
Resource management
Demand creation
Demand fulfillment
Plan
production
Produce product
Deliver product
Support product
Set-up machine
Make parts
Assemble parts
Test parts
Operation 1
Operation 2
Operation 3
Figure 4.3 System decomposition
H6663-Ch04.qxd 6/29/05 10:00 AM Page 122

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