52 Basic concepts
implementation in production. This traditional cycle for products therefore has some
redeeming features:
Design does not commence without a specification of requirements; if it does, the
wrong product is likely to be designed.
Designs are documented before product is manufactured; if they are not docu-
mented, it is likely that the product cannot be manufactured or will not fit together
or function as intended.
Designs are proven before launching into production; if production commences
before design proving, the product will probably fail on test or in service.
Design documentation is changed before changes are implemented in production; if
documentation is not changed before implementation, the product will be different
each time it is made; solved problems will recur and no two installations will be alike.
If we apply the same logic to the design and implementation of a management system,
we would:
define the requirements before commencing management system design, i.e. we
would establish the objectives the system is required to achieve;
document the management system design before implementation;
verify that the management system meets the requirements before commitment to
full operation;
document changes to the management system before implementation in practice.
But what often happens is:
the management system development commences without a specification of
requirements or a clear idea of the objectives is need to achieve; Often the system
exists only to meet ISO 9000, ISO/TS 16949 or some other standard;
the management system is documented before it has been designed;
the management system is made fully operational before being verified it meets the
requirements;
changes are made to practices before they are documented;
improvements are made to the management system without consulting the docu-
mentation because it is often out of date.
As the management system is the means by which the organization achieves its object-
ives, the management system delivers the organization’s products. (This includes hard-
ware, software, services and processed material including information products.)
If we analyse the factors on which the quality of these products depend we would
deduce they include:
the style of management (autocratic, democratic, participative, directive, etc.);
the attitude and behaviour of the people (positive, negative, etc.);
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