brainstorming, observation, past experience or theoretical analysis. The result will be a
series of process flow charts with details of specific inputs and outputs. Examples of these
are given in other parts of this book.
Determining the competence and capability
The next stage is to determine the competence required by those who are to carry out
the actions and decisions on the flow charts. Competence is related to the work
process outputs determined previously. Competence determination and measurement
is addressed in Chapter 6.
Whilst many activities may be carried out using general office equipment and facilities,
others may require specific capabilities and these need to be determined.
The numbers of people of differing competences will need to be determined and these
people acquired in time to operate the work processes. Likewise the quantity of equip-
ment and size of facilities needed should be determined and arrangements made to
Process installation is concerned with bringing information, human resources and
physical resources together in the right relationship so that all the components are put
in place in readiness to commence operation. In many cases the process will be
installed already because it existed before formalization. In some cases process instal-
lation will require a cultural change. There is little point in introducing change to peo-
ple who are not prepared for it. Installing a dynamic process-based system into an
environment in which people still believe in an element-based system or in which man-
agement still thinks in terms of functions is doomed to fail. Therefore, a precursor to
process installation is the preparation of sound foundations. Everyone concerned
needs to understand the purpose and objectives of what is about to happen; in other
words, they all need to perceive the benefits and be committed to change and under-
stand the concepts and principles involved.
The process of installing a new process or one that requires a change in practice is one
that is concerned with the management of change. It has to be planned and resourced
and account taken of attitudes, culture, barriers and any other resistance there may be.
You must remember that not all those who are to use the process may have participated
in its development and may therefore be reluctant to change their practices.
Process commissioning is concerned with getting processes working following installation.
The people will have been through reorientation and will have received all the necessary
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