Autonomous Learning Sensors for Chemical and Petrochemical Industries
One of the most interesting applications of ALS for prediction and estimation is for self-calibrating (intelligent/smart/soft/inferential) sensors. They are applicable in various industries, but most widely in chemical and petrochemical branches. In this chapter there will be some illustrative examples of the research work the author did collaboratively with Dr. Jose Macias Henrandez from CEPSA oil refinery, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain and Dr. Arthur Karl Kordon, The Dow Chemical, Freeport, Texas, USA.
11.1 Case Study 1: Quality of the Products in an Oil Refinery
In oil refineries the crude oil is separated in different (quality) petroleum cuts (being refined) in distillation towers by lateral extraction (Macias and Feliu, 2000; Macias, Angelov and Zhou, 2006), see Figure 11.1.
These cuts include: ...