**Measure how many base runners a pitcher allows by using WHIP**.

Walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP) is a simple statistic for measuring pitcher effectiveness. In short, it measures the average number of base runners a pitcher allows per inning. WHIP is correlated with pitcher effectiveness, though its most important use is as a fantasy statistic (it’s actually called *composite ratio* in the book *Rotisserie League Baseball* [Bantam Books]). Here is the formula for WHIP:

WHIP = (BB + H) / (IPOuts / 3)

We’ll start with the `p_and_t`

table from “Measure Pitching with ERA”
**[Hack #47]**
, and we’ll use this code to load the table into R (using Open Database Connectivity, or ODBC, this time):

attach(p_and_t) WHIP <- (BB + H) / IPouts * 3 p_and_t$WHIP <- WHIP

Now, let’s calculate summary statistics for consistency:

>qualify <- IPouts > 3 * teamG >p_and_t$qualify <- qualify >summary(subset(WHIP, yearID > 1910 & qualify)) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. 0.7373 1.2110 1.3090 1.3150 1.4150 1.9820

We’ll start with the `p_and_t`

table from “Measure Pitching with ERA”
**[Hack #47]**
, and we’ll use this SQL code to calculate the top 10 players of all time, by WHIP:

select f.franchName as Team, concat(m.nameLast, ", ", m.nameFirst, " (", p.yearID, ")") as Player, round((p.H + p.BB)/p.IPOuts * 3,3) as WHIP, p.IPOuts from p_and_t p inner join master m inner join teamsFranchises f where substring(p.teamIDs,1,3)=f.franchID and p.idxLahman=m.idxLahman ...

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