O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Book Description

This comprehensive book on basic electrical engineering covers almost all the topics of basic electrical engineering, ranging from circuits to machines to measurements to power systems. An introduction to basic electronics has also been provided so as to prepare the students for an in-depth study later. The chapters have been developed using the basic principles of learning and motivation. Easy explanation of topics, plenty of examples and illustrations, practice problems and multiple choice questions with answers, and short answer type review questions are the principal features of this book

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. About the Author
  6. 1. Basic Concepts, Laws, and Principles
  7. 1.1 Introduction
  8. 1.2 Atomic Structure and Electric Charge
  9. 1.3 Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors
  10. 1.4 Electric Field and Magnetic Field
  11. 1.5 Electric Current, Resistance, Potential, and Potential Difference
  12. 1.5.1 Electric Current
  13. 1.5.2 Resistance
  14. 1.5.3 Potential and Potential Difference
  15. 1.6 Ohm’s Law
  16. 1.7 The Effect of Temperature on Resistance
  17. 1.8 Work, Power, and Energy
  18. 1.8.1 Work
  19. 1.8.2 Power
  20. 1.8.3 Energy
  21. 1.8.4 Units of Work, Power, and Energy
  22. 1.9 Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
  23. 1.9.1 Introduction
  24. 1.9.2 Magnetic Field Around a Current-carrying Conductor
  25. 1.9.3 Magnetic Field Around a Coil
  26. 1.9.4 A Current-carrying Conductor Placed in a Magnetic Field
  27. 1.9.5 A Current-carrying Coil Placed in a Magnetic Field
  28. 1.10 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
  29. 1.11 Induced EMF in a Coil Rotating in a Magnetic Field
  30. 1.12 EMF Induced in a Conductor
  31. 1.13 Dynamically Induced EMF and Statically Induced EMF
  32. 1.14 Self-induced EMF and Mutually Induced EMF
  33. 1.15 Self-inductance of a Coil
  34. 1.16 Mutual Inductance
  35. 1.17 Inductance of Coils Connected in Series Having a Common Core
  36. 1.18 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
  37. 1.19 Electrical Circuit Elements
  38. 1.19.1 Resistors
  39. 1.19.2 Inductors
  40. 1.19.3 Capacitors
  41. 1.20 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
  42. 1.21 Capacitor in Parallel and in Series
  43. 1.22 Review Questions
  44. 2. DC Networks and Network Theorems
  45. 2.1 Introduction
  46. 2.2 DC Network Terminologies, Voltage, and Current Sources
  47. 2.2.1 Network Terminologies
  48. 2.2.2 Voltage and Current Sources
  49. 2.2.3 Source Transformation
  50. 2.3 Series–Parallel Circuits
  51. 2.3.1 Series Circuits
  52. 2.3.2 Parallel Circuits
  53. 2.3.3 Series–Parallel Circuits
  54. 2.4 Voltage and Current Divider Rules
  55. 2.4.1 Voltage Divider Rule
  56. 2.4.2 Current Divider Rule
  57. 2.5 Kirchhoff’s Laws
  58. 2.5.1 Kirchhoff’s Current Law
  59. 2.5.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
  60. 2.5.3 Solution of Simultaneous Equations using Cramer’s Rule
  61. 2.5.4 Method of Evaluating Determinant
  62. 2.6 Maxwell’s Mesh Current Method
  63. 2.7 Nodal Voltage Method (Nodal Analysis)
  64. 2.8 Network Theorems
  65. 2.8.1 Superposition Theorem
  66. 2.8.2 Thevenin’s Theorem
  67. 2.8.3 Norton’s Theorem
  68. 2.8.4 Millman’s Theorem
  69. 2.8.5 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
  70. 2.9 Star–Delta Transformation
  71. 2.9.1 Transforming Relations for Delta to Star
  72. 2.9.2 Transforming Relations for Star to Delta
  73. 2.10 DC Transients
  74. 2.10.1 Introduction
  75. 2.10.2 Transient in R–L Circuit
  76. 2.10.3 Transient in R–C Circuit
  77. 2.11 Review Questions
  78. 3. AC Fundamentals and Single-phase Circuits
  79. 3.1 AC Fundamentals
  80. 3.1.1 Introduction
  81. 3.1.2 Generation of Alternating Voltage in an Elementary Generator
  82. 3.1.3 Concept of Frequency, Cycle, Time Period, Instantaneous Value, Average Value, and Maximum Value
  83. 3.1.4 Sinusoidal and Non-sinusoidal Wave Forms
  84. 3.1.5 Concept of Average Value and Root Mean Square (RMS) Value of an Alternating Quantity
  85. 3.1.6 Analytical Method of Calculation of RMS Value, Average Value, and Form Factor
  86. 3.1.7 RMS and Average Values of Half-wave-rectified Alternating Quantity
  87. 3.1.8 Concept of Phase and Phase Difference
  88. 3.2 Single-phase AC Circuits
  89. 3.2.1 Behaviour of R, L, and C in AC Circuits
  90. 3.2.2 L–R Series Circuit
  91. 3.2.3 Apparent Power, Real Power, and Reactive Power
  92. 3.2.4 Power in an AC Circuit
  93. 3.2.5 R–C Series Circuit
  94. 3.2.6 R–L–C Series Circuit
  95. 3.2.7 AC Parallel Circuits
  96. 3.2.8 AC Series—Parallel Circuits
  97. 3.3 Resonance in AC Circuits
  98. 3.3.1 Resonance in AC Series Circuit
  99. 3.3.2 Resonance in AC Parallel Circuits
  100. 3.4 Review Questions
  101. 4. Three-phase System
  102. 4.1 Introduction
  103. 4.2 Advantages of Three-phase Systems
  104. 4.3 Generation of Three-phase Voltages
  105. 4.4 Terms used in Three-phase Systems and Circuits
  106. 4.5 Three-phase Winding Connections
  107. 4.5.1 Star Connection
  108. 4.5.2 Delta Connection
  109. 4.5.3 Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages, and Currents in a Star-connected System
  110. 4.5.4 Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Delta-connected System
  111. 4.6 Active and Reactive Power
  112. 4.7 Comparison between Star Connection and Delta Connection
  113. 4.8 Measurement of Power in Three-phase Circuits
  114. 4.8.1 One-Wattmeter Method
  115. 4.8.2 Two-Wattmeter Method
  116. 4.8.3 Three-Wattmeter Method
  117. 4.9 Review Questions
  118. 5. Transformers
  119. 5.1 Introduction
  120. 5.2 Applications of Transformers
  121. 5.3 Basic Principle and Constructional Details
  122. 5.3.1 Basic Principle
  123. 5.3.2 Constructional Details
  124. 5.4 Core-type and Shell-type Transformers
  125. 5.4.1 Power Transformers and Distribution Transformers
  126. 5.5 EMF Equation
  127. 5.6 Transformer on No-load
  128. 5.7 Transformer on Load
  129. 5.8 Transformer Circuit Parameters and Equivalent Circuit
  130. 5.9 Phasor Diagram of a Transformer
  131. 5.10 Concept of Voltage Regulation
  132. 5.11 Concept of an Ideal Transformer
  133. 5.12 Transformer Tests
  134. 5.12.1 Open-circuit Test or No-load Test
  135. 5.12.2 Short-circuit Test
  136. 5.13 Efficiency of a Transformer
  137. 5.14 Condition for Maximum Efficiency
  138. 5.15 All-day Efficiency
  139. 5.16 Calculation of Regulation of a Transformer
  140. 5.17 Factors Affecting Losses in a Transformer
  141. 5.18 Solved Numerical Problems
  142. 5.19 Review Questions
  143. 6. DC Machines
  144. 6.1 Introduction and Principle of Working
  145. 6.1.1 Nature of Load Current When Output is Taken out Through Brush and Slip-ring Arrangement
  146. 6.1.2 Nature of Load Current When Output is Taken Through Brush and Commutator Arrangement
  147. 6.1.3 Function of Brush and Commutators in Motoring Action
  148. 6.2 Constructional Details
  149. 6.2.1 The Field System
  150. 6.2.2 The Armature
  151. 6.2.3 Armature Winding
  152. 6.2.4 Types of Armature Winding
  153. 6.3 EMF Equation of a DC Machine
  154. 6.3.1 Induced EMF is Equated to Flux Cut Per Second
  155. 6.4 Types of DC Machines
  156. 6.5 Characteristics of DC Generators
  157. 6.5.1 No-load Characteristics
  158. 6.5.2 Load Characteristics
  159. 6.6 Applications of DC Generators
  160. 6.7 Operation of a DC Machine as a Motor
  161. 6.7.1 Working Principle of a DC Motor
  162. 6.7.2 Changing the Direction of Rotation
  163. 6.7.3 Energy Conversion Equation
  164. 6.8 Torque Equation
  165. 6.9 Starting a DC Motor
  166. 6.10 Speed Control of DC Motors
  167. 6.10.1 Voltage Control Method
  168. 6.10.2 Field Control Method
  169. 6.10.3 Armature Control Method
  170. 6.11 Starter for a DC Motor
  171. 6.11.1 Three-point Starter
  172. 6.11.2 Four-point Starter
  173. 6.12 Types and Characteristics of DC Motors
  174. 6.12.1 Characteristics of DC Shunt Motors
  175. 6.12.2 Characteristics of DC Series Motors
  176. 6.12.3 Characteristics of DC Compound Motors
  177. 6.13 Losses and Efficiency
  178. 6.13.1 Losses in a DC Machine
  179. 6.13.2 Efficiency of DC Machine
  180. 6.13.3 Condition for Maximum Efficiency
  181. 6.14 Applications of DC Machines
  182. 6.14.1 DC Generators
  183. 6.14.2 DC Motors
  184. 6.14.3 DC Series Motors
  185. 6.14.4 DC Compound Motors
  186. 6.15 Solved Numerical Problems
  187. 6.16 Review Questions
  188. 7. Three-phase Induction Motors
  189. 7.1 Introduction
  190. 7.2 Constructional Details
  191. 7.3 Windings and Pole Formation
  192. 7.4 Production of Rotating Magnetic Field
  193. 7.5 Principle of Working
  194. 7.6 Rotor-induced EMF, Rotor Frequency, Rotor Current
  195. 7.7 Losses in Induction Motors
  196. 7.8 Power Flow Diagram
  197. 7.9 Torque Equation
  198. 7.10 Starting Torque
  199. 7.11 Condition for Maximum Torque
  200. 7.12 Torque–Slip Characteristic
  201. 7.13 Variation of Torque–Slip Characteristic with Change in Rotor–Circuit Resistance
  202. 7.14 Starting of Induction Motors
  203. 7.14.1 Direct-on-Line Starting
  204. 7.14.2 Manual Star–Delta Starter
  205. 7.15 Speed Control of Induction Motors
  206. 7.16 Determination of Efficiency
  207. 7.16.1 No-load Test
  208. 7.16.2 Blocked-rotor Test
  209. 7.17 Applications of Induction Motors
  210. 7.18 Solved Numerical Problems
  211. 7.19 Review Questions
  212. 8. Single-phase Motors
  213. 8.1 Introduction to Single-phase Induction Motors
  214. 8.2 Constructional Details
  215. 8.3 Double Revolving Field Theory and Principle of Working of Single-phase Induction Motors
  216. 8.4 Torque-speed Characteristic
  217. 8.5 Split-phase Induction Motors
  218. 8.6 Shaded Pole Induction Motor
  219. 8.7 Single-phase AC Series Motors
  220. 8.8 Operation of a Series Motor on DC and AC (Universal Motors)
  221. 8.9 Single-phase Synchronous Motors
  222. 8.9.1 Reluctance Motors
  223. 8.9.2 Hysteresis Motors
  224. 8.10 Stepper Motors
  225. 8.11 Review Questions
  226. 9. Synchronous Machines
  227. 9.1 Introduction
  228. 9.2 Constructional Details of Synchronous Machines
  229. 9.3 Advantages of Stationary Armature and Rotating Field
  230. 9.4 Use of Laminated Sheets for the Stator and the Rotor
  231. 9.5 Armature Windings
  232. 9.6 Concept of Coil Span, Mechanical, and Electrical Degrees
  233. 9.7 Types of Windings
  234. 9.8 Induced EMF in a Synchronous Machine
  235. 9.8.1 EMF Equation
  236. 9.8.2 Distribution Factor
  237. 9.8.3 Pitch Factor
  238. 9.9 Open-circuit or No-load Characteristic
  239. 9.10 Synchronous Generator on Load
  240. 9.11 Synchronous Impedance and Voltage Drop due to Synchronous Impedance
  241. 9.12 Voltage Regulation of a Synchronous Generator
  242. 9.13 Determination of Voltage Regulation by the Synchronous Impedance Method
  243. 9.14 Synchronous Generators Connected in Parallel to Supply a Common Load
  244. 9.14.1 Advantages of Parallel Operation
  245. 9.14.2 Parallel Connection of Alternators
  246. 9.14.3 Conditions for Parallel Connection and Synchronization
  247. 9.14.4 Load Sharing
  248. 9.15 Synchronous Motor
  249. 9.15.1 Introduction
  250. 9.15.2 Principle of Working of a Synchronous Motor
  251. 9.15.3 Effect of Change of Excitation of a Synchronous Motor
  252. 9.15.4 Application of Synchronous Motors
  253. 9.16 Review Questions
  254. 10. Measurement and Measuring Instruments
  255. 10.1 Introduction
  256. 10.2 Analog and Digital Instruments
  257. 10.3 Passive and Active Instruments
  258. 10.4 Static Characteristics of Instruments
  259. 10.4.1 Accuracy
  260. 10.4.2 Precision
  261. 10.4.3 Sensitivity and Resolution
  262. 10.4.4 Error, Threshold, and Loading Effect
  263. 10.5 Linear and Non-linear Systems
  264. 10.6 Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments
  265. 10.7 Classification of the Instrument System
  266. 10.7.1 Active and Passive Instruments
  267. 10.7.2 Analog and Digital Instruments
  268. 10.7.3 Indicating, Recording, and Integrating Instruments
  269. 10.7.4 Deflection- and Null-type Instruments
  270. 10.8 Measurement Error
  271. 10.9 Indicating-type Instruments
  272. 10.9.1 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments
  273. 10.9.2 Use of Shunts and Multipliers
  274. 10.9.3 Moving Iron Instruments
  275. 10.9.4 Dynamometer-type moving coil Instruments
  276. 10.10 Measurement of Power
  277. 10.10.1 Power in DC and AC Circuits
  278. 10.10.2 Measurement of Power in Single-phase AC Circuit
  279. 10.10.3 Sources of Error in measurement using Dynamometer-type Wattmeters
  280. 10.11 Measurement of Energy
  281. 10.11.1 Introduction
  282. 10.11.2 Constructional details and working principle of Single-phase Induction-type Energy Meter
  283. 10.12 Instrument Transformers
  284. 10.12.1 Current Transformers
  285. 10.12.2 Potential Transformers
  286. 10.13 Megger and Measurement of Insulation Resistance
  287. 10.14 Multimeter and Measurement of Resistance
  288. 10.15 Review Questions
  289. 11. Domestic Wiring
  290. 11.1 Domestic Wiring
  291. 11.1.1 Service Connection
  292. 11.1.2 Service Mains
  293. 11.1.3 Distribution Board for Single-phase Installation
  294. 11.1.4 Neutral and Earth Wire
  295. 11.1.5 Earthing
  296. 11.1.6 System of Wiring
  297. 11.1.7 System of Connection of Lights, Fans and Other Electrical Loads
  298. 11.2 Circuit Protective Devices and Safety Precautions
  299. 11.2.1 Safety Precautions in Using Electricity
  300. 11.3 Efficient Use of Electricity
  301. 11.4 Review Questions
  302. 12. Semiconductor Devices
  303. 12.1 Introduction
  304. 12.2 Review of Atomic Theory
  305. 12.3 Binding Forces between Atoms in Semiconductor Materials
  306. 12.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors
  307. 12.4.1 N-type Semiconductor Material
  308. 12.4.2 P-type Semiconductor Material
  309. 12.4.3 The p–n Junction
  310. 12.4.4 Biasing of p–n Junction
  311. 12.5 Semiconductor Diodes
  312. 12.5.1 Volt–ampere Characteristic of a Diode
  313. 12.5.2 An Ideal Diode
  314. 12.5.3 Diode Parameters and Diode Ratings
  315. 12.6 Zener Diode
  316. 12.6.1 Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator
  317. 12.6.2 Zener Diode as a Reference Voltage
  318. 12.7 Bipolar Junction Transistors
  319. 12.7.1 Working of a n–p–n Transistor
  320. 12.7.2 Working of a p–n–p Transistor
  321. 12.7.3 Transistor Configurations
  322. 12.7.4 Transistor as an Amplifier
  323. 12.7.5 Transistor as a Switch
  324. 12.8 Field Effect Transistors
  325. 12.8.1 Junction Field Effect Transistors
  326. 12.8.2 FET Applications
  327. 12.9 MOSFET
  328. 12.9.1 The Enhancement MOSFET (EMOSFET)
  329. 12.9.2 The Depletion MOSFET
  330. 12.9.3 Static Characteristics of MOSFET
  331. 12.9.4 Applications of MOSFET
  332. 12.10 UJT (Unijunction Transistor)
  333. 12.10.1 Working of UJT
  334. 12.11 Silicon-controlled Rectifier
  335. 12.11.1 Characteristics of SCR
  336. 12.11.2 Two-transistor Analogy of an SCR
  337. 12.11.3 Applications of SCR
  338. 12.12 DIAC
  339. 12.13 TRIAC
  340. 12.14 Optoelectronic Devices
  341. 12.14.1 Light-dependent Resistor
  342. 12.14.2 Light-emitting Diodes
  343. 12.14.3 Seven Segment Displays
  344. 12.14.4 Liquid Crystal Displays
  345. 12.14.5 Photodiodes
  346. 12.14.6 Photovoltaic Cells or Solar Cells
  347. 12.14.7 Phototransistors
  348. 12.14.8 Photo-darlington
  349. 12.14.9 Optocouplers
  350. 12.15 Review Questions
  351. 13. Electronic Circuits
  352. 13.1 Rectifiers
  353. 13.1.1 Introduction
  354. 13.1.2 Half-wave Rectifier
  355. 13.1.3 Analysis of Half-wave Rectifier
  356. 13.1.4 Full-wave Rectifier
  357. 13.1.5 Full-wave Bridge Rectifier
  358. 13.1.6 Analysis of Full-wave Rectifiers
  359. 13.1.7 Comparison of Half-wave and Full-wave Rectifiers
  360. 13.2 Transistor Amplifier
  361. 13.2.1 The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit
  362. 13.2.2 Common Collector Amplifier Circuit
  363. 13.2.3 Common Base Amplifier Circuit
  364. 13.3 Oscillators
  365. 13.3.1 Classification of Oscillators
  366. 13.3.2 Sinusoidal Oscillator or Harmonic Oscillator
  367. 13.3.3 Non-sinusoidal Oscillator
  368. 13.3.4 Basic Functional Blocks of Oscillator Circuit
  369. 13.3.5 Barkhausen Criterion or Conditions for Oscillation
  370. 13.3.6 LC Tuned Oscillators
  371. 13.3.7 RC Oscillators
  372. 13.4 Filters
  373. 13.5 RC Integrator and Differentiator
  374. 13.5.1 Integrator
  375. 13.5.2 Differentiator
  376. 13.6 Applications of Diodes in Clipping and Clamping Circuits
  377. 13.6.1 Negative and Positive Series Clippers
  378. 13.6.2 Shunt Clippers
  379. 13.6.3 Biased Clippers
  380. 13.6.4 Clamping Circuits
  381. 13.7 Multivibrators
  382. 13.7.1 Astable Multivibrator
  383. 13.7.2 Monostable Multivibrator
  384. 13.7.3 Bistable Multivibrator
  385. 13.8 Schmitt Trigger
  386. 13.9 Review Questions
  387. Index
  388. Copyright