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Basic Electrical Engineering

Book Description

Attuned to the needs of undergraduate students of engineering in their first year, Basic Electrical Engineering enables them to build a strong foundation in the subject. A large number of real-world examples illustrate the applications of complex theories. The book comprehensively covers all the areas taught in a one-semester course and serves as an ideal study material on the subject.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1 Concepts of Circuit Theory
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Electricity
    3. 1.3 Modern electron theory
    4. 1.4 Nature of electricity
    5. 1.5 Charged body
    6. 1.6 Unit of charge
    7. 1.7 Free electrons
    8. 1.8 Electric potential
    9. 1.9 Potential difference
    10. 1.10 Electric current
      1. 1.10.1 Conventional direction of flow of current
    11. 1.11 Resistance
      1. 1.11.1 Laws of resistance
    12. 1.12 Resistivity
    13. 1.13 Specific resistance
    14. 1.14 Conductance
      1. 1.14.1 Conductivity
    15. 1.15 Electromotive force
    16. 1.16 EMF and potential difference
    17. 1.17 Ohm’s law
      1. 1.17.1 Limitations of ohm’s law
    18. 1.18 Effect of temperature on resistance
    19. 1.19 Temperature co-efficient of resistance
    20. 1.20 Temperature co-efficient of copper at 0°C
    21. 1.21 Effect of temperature on α
    22. 1.22 Effect of temperature on resistivity
    23. 1.23 Electrical energy
    24. 1.24 Electrical power
    25. 1.25 Mechanical work
    26. 1.26 Mechanical power
    27. 1.27 Heat energy
    28. 1.28 Joules law of electrical heating
    29. 1.29 Relation between various quantities
      1. 1.29.1 Relation between horse power and kW
      2. 1.29.2 Relation between horse power and torque
      3. 1.29.3 Relation between kWh and kcal
    30. 1.30 D.C. Circuits
    31. 1.31 Series circuits
    32. 1.32 Parallel circuits
    33. 1.33 Seriesparallel circuits
    34. 1.34 Division of current in parallel circuits
      1. 1.34.1 When two resistors are connected in parallel
      2. 1.34.2 When three resistors are connected in parallel
  8. Chapter 2 DC Circuit Analysis and Network Theorems
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Electric network
      1. 2.2.1 Active elements
      2. 2.2.2 Passive elements
      3. 2.2.3 Network terminology
    3. 2.3 Voltage and current sources
      1. 2.3.1 Internal resistance of a source
      2. 2.3.2 Ideal voltage source
      3. 2.3.3 Real voltage source
      4. 2.3.4 Current source
      5. 2.3.5 Ideal current source
      6. 2.3.6 Real current source
      7. 2.3.7 Difference between voltage source and current source
    4. 2.4 Source transformation (conversion of voltage source to current source and vice versa)
    5. 2.5 Kichhoff’s laws
      1. 2.5.1 Kirchhoff’s first law
      2. 2.5.2 Kirchhoff’s second law
      3. 2.5.3 Solution of network by kirchhoff’s laws
    6. 2.6 Wheatstone bridge
    7. 2.7 Maxwell’s mesh current method (loop analysis)
    8. 2.8 Nodal analysis
    9. 2.9 Deltastar and stardelta transformation
      1. 2.9.1 Delta—star transformation
      2. 2.9.2 Star—delta transformation
    10. 2.10 Superposition theorem
    11. 2.11 Thevenin’s theorem
    12. 2.12 Norton’s theorem
    13. 2.13 Conversion of thevenin’s equivalent into norton’s equivalent and vice versa
    14. 2.14 Maximum power transfer theorem
    15. 2.15 Reciprocity theorem
  9. Chapter 3 Electrostatics and Capacitors
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Coulomb’s laws of electrostatics
      1. 3.2.1 Unit charge
    3. 3.3 Absolute and relative permittivity
    4. 3.4 Electric field
      1. 3.4.1 Electric lines of force
    5. 3.5 Electric flux
    6. 3.6 Electric flux density (D)
    7. 3.7 Electric intensity or field strength (E)
    8. 3.8 Relation between σ and E
    9. 3.9 Area vector
    10. 3.10 Electric flux through an area
    11. 3.11 Different ways of charge distribution
      1. 3.11.1 Linear charge distribution
      2. 3.11.2 Surface charge distribution
      3. 3.11.3 Volume charge distribution
    12. 3.12 Gauss theorem of electrostatics
      1. 3.12.1 Proof of gauss theorem
    13. 3.13 Deduction of coulomb’s law from gauss’s law
    14. 3.14 Electric intensity due to a charged sphere
      1. 3.14.1 Point P is outside the sphere
      2. 3.14.2 Point P is inside the sphere
    15. 3.15 Electric intensity due to a long charged conductor
    16. 3.16 Electric potential
      1. 3.16.1 Potential at a point
      2. 3.16.2 Potential at a point due to number of charges
    17. 3.17 Electric potential difference
    18. 3.18 Potential due to charged sphere
      1. 3.18.1 Potential at the sphere surface
      2. 3.18.2 Potential inside the sphere
      3. 3.18.3 Potential outside the sphere
    19. 3.19 Potential gradient
    20. 3.20 Breakdown potential or dielectric strength
    21. 3.21 Capacitor
      1. 3.21.1 Types of capacitors
      2. 3.21.2 Capacitor action
    22. 3.22 Capacitance
      1. 3.22.1 Dielectric constant or relative permittivity
      2. 3.22.2 Capacitance of parallel-plate capacitor
      3. 3.22.3 Factors affecting capacitance
      4. 3.22.4 Dielectric and its effect on capacitance
    23. 3.23 Parallel-plate capacitor with composite medium
      1. 3.23.1 Medium partly air
      2. 3.23.2 Slab of dielectric is introduced
    24. 3.24 Multi-plate capacitors
    25. 3.25 Grouping of capacitors
      1. 3.25.1 Capacitors in series
      2. 3.25.2 Capacitors in parallel
      3. 3.25.3 Capacitors in seriesparallel
    26. 3.26 Energy stored in a capacitor
  10. Chapter 4 Batteries
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Electric cell
      1. 4.2.1 Forming of a cell
      2. 4.2.2 EMF developed in a cell
    3. 4.3 Types of cells
    4. 4.4 Important terms relating to an electric cell
    5. 4.5 Grouping of cells
      1. 4.5.1 Series grouping
      2. 4.5.2 Parallel grouping
      3. 4.5.3 Series—parallel grouping
    6. 4.6 Battery
      1. 4.6.1 Lead—acid battery
      2. 4.6.2 Working principle of lead—acid cell
    7. 4.7 Capacity of a battery
    8. 4.8 Efficiency of a battery
    9. 4.9 Charge indications of a lead-acid battery or cell
    10. 4.10 Charging of lead—acid battery
    11. 4.11 Care and maintenance of lead—acid batteries
    12. 4.12 Applications of lead—acid batteries
    13. 4.13 Nickel—iron alkaline cell
      1. 4.13.1 Construction
      2. 4.13.2 Working
      3. 4.13.3 Discharging
      4. 4.13.4 Recharging
      5. 4.13.5 Electrical characteristics
      6. 4.13.6 Advantages
      7. 4.13.7 Disadvantages
    14. 4.14 Comparison between lead—acid and nickel—iron alkaline cell
    15. 4.15 Nickel—cadmium cell
      1. 4.15.1 Construction
      2. 4.15.2 Chemical action during discharging
      3. 4.15.3 Chemical action during recharging
      4. 4.15.4 Electrical characteristics
      5. 4.15.5 Advantages
      6. 4.15.6 Disadvantages
    16. 4.16 Small nickel—cadmium cells
      1. 4.16.1 Silver button cell
    17. 4.17 Solar cells
      1. 4.17.1 Applications
  11. Chapter 5 Magnetic Circuits
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Magnetic field and its significance
    3. 5.3 Magnetic circuit and its analysis
    4. 5.4 Important terms
    5. 5.5 Comparison between magnetic and electric circuits
    6. 5.6 Ampere turns calculations
    7. 5.7 Series magnetic circuits
    8. 5.8 Parallel magnetic circuits
    9. 5.9 Leakage flux
      1. 5.9.1 Fringing
    10. 5.10 Magnetisation or B—H curve
    11. 5.11 Magnetic hysteresis
      1. 5.11.1 Residual magnetism and retentivity
      2. 5.11.2 Coercive force
    12. 5.12 Hysteresis loss
    13. 5.13 Importance of hysteresis loop
    14. 5.14 Electromagnetic induction
    15. 5.15 Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
      1. 5.15.1 First law
      2. 5.15.2 Second law
    16. 5.16 Direction of induced emf
    17. 5.17 Induced emf
    18. 5.18 Dynamically induced emf
      1. 5.18.1 Mathematical expression
    19. 5.19 Statically induced emf
      1. 5.19.1 Self-induced emf
      2. 5.19.2 Mutually induced emf
    20. 5.20 Self-inductance
      1. 5.20.1 Expressions for self-inductance
    21. 5.21 Mutual inductance
      1. 5.21.1 Expression for mutual inductance
    22. 5.22 Co-efficient of coupling
      1. 5.22.1 Mathematical expression
    23. 5.23 Inductances in series and parallel
      1. 5.23.1 Inductances in series
      2. 5.23.2 Inductances in parallel
    24. 5.24 Energy stored in a magnetic field
    25. 5.25 Ac excitation in magnetic circuits
    26. 5.26 Eddy current loss
      1. 5.26.1 Useful applications of eddy currents
      2. 5.26.2 Mathematical expression for eddy current loss
  12. Chapter 6 AC Fundamentals
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Alternating voltage and current
      1. 6.2.1 Wave form
    3. 6.3 Difference between ac and dc
    4. 6.4 Sinusoidal alternating quantity
    5. 6.5 Generation of alternating voltage and current
    6. 6.6 Equation of alternating emf and current
    7. 6.7 Important terms
    8. 6.8 Important relations
    9. 6.9 Different forms of alternating voltage equation
    10. 6.10 Values of alternating voltage and current
    11. 6.11 Peak value
    12. 6.12 Average value
    13. 6.13 Average value of sinusoidal current
    14. 6.14 Effective or rms value
    15. 6.15 Rms value of sinusoidal current
    16. 6.16 Form factor and peak factor
    17. 6.17 Phasor representation of sinusoidal quantity
    18. 6.18 Phase and phase difference
    19. 6.19 Addition and subtraction of alternating quantities
      1. 6.19.1 Addition of alternating quantities
      2. 6.19.2 Subtraction of alternating quantities
    20. 6.20 Phasor diagrams using rms values
  13. Chapter 7 Single-phase AC Circuits
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 AC circuit containing resistance only
      1. 7.2.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.2.2 Power
      3. 7.2.3 Power curve
    3. 7.3 AC circuit containing pure inductance only
      1. 7.3.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.3.2 Power
      3. 7.3.3 Power curve
    4. 7.4 AC circuit containing pure capacitor only
      1. 7.4.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.4.2 Power
      3. 7.4.3 Power curve
    5. 7.5 AC series circuits
    6. 7.6 R—L series circuit
      1. 7.6.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.6.2 Power
      3. 7.6.3 Power curve
    7. 7.7 Impedance triangle
    8. 7.8 True power and reactive power
      1. 7.8.1 Active component of current
      2. 7.8.2 Reactive component of current
      3. 7.8.3 Power triangle
    9. 7.9 Power factor and its importance
      1. 7.9.1 Importance of power factor
    10. 7.10 Q-factor of a coil
    11. 7.11 R—C series circuit
      1. 7.11.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.11.2 Power
      3. 7.11.3 Power curve
      4. 7.11.4 Impedance triangle
    12. 7.12 R—L—C series circuit
      1. 7.12.1 Phase angle
      2. 7.12.2 Power
      3. 7.12.3 Impedance triangle
    13. 7.13 Series resonance
      1. 7.13.1 Resonant frequency
      2. 7.13.2 Effects of series resonance
    14. 7.14 Resonance curve
      1. 7.14.1 Bandwidth
      2. 7.14.2 Selectivity
    15. 7.15 Q-factor of series resonant circuit
    16. 7.16 AC parallel circuits
    17. 7.17 Methods of solving parallel ac circuits
    18. 7.18 Phasor (or vector) method
    19. 7.19 Admittance method
      1. 7.19.1 Admittance
      2. 7.19.2 Admittance triangle
      3. 7.19.3 Conductance
      4. 7.19.4 Susceptance
      5. 7.19.5 Solution of parallel ac circuits by admittance method
    20. 7.20 Method of phasor algebra or symbolic method or J-method
    21. 7.21 J-notation of phasor on rectangular co-ordinate axes
      1. 7.21.1 Mathematical representation of phasors
    22. 7.22 Addition and subtraction of phasor quantities
      1. 7.22.1 Addition
      2. 7.22.2 Subtraction
    23. 7.23 Multiplication and division of phasors
      1. 7.23.1 Multiplication
      2. 7.23.2 Division
    24. 7.24 Conjugate of a complex number
      1. 7.24.1 Addition
      2. 7.24.2 Subtraction
      3. 7.24.3 Multiplication
    25. 7.25 Powers and roots of phasors
    26. 7.26 Solution of series and parallel ac circuits by phasor algebra
    27. 7.27 Parallel resonance
      1. 7.27.1 Resonant frequency
      2. 7.27.2 Effect of parallel resonance
      3. 7.27.3 Resonance curve
    28. 7.28 Q-factor of a parallel resonant circuit
    29. 7.29 Comparison of series and parallel resonant circuits
  14. Chapter 8 Three-phase AC Circuits
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Polyphase system
    3. 8.3 Advantages of three-phase system over single-phase system
    4. 8.4 Generation of three-phase emfs
      1. 8.4.1 Phasor diagram
    5. 8.5 Naming the phases
    6. 8.6 Phase sequence
    7. 8.7 Double-subscript notation
    8. 8.8 Interconnection of three phases
    9. 8.9 Star or wye (Y) connection
      1. 8.9.1 Relation between phase voltage and line voltage
      2. 8.9.2 Relation between phase current and line current
    10. 8.10 Mesh or delta (∆) connection
      1. 8.10.1 Relation between phase voltage and line voltage
      2. 8.10.2 Relation between phase current and line current
    11. 8.11 Connections of three-phase loads
    12. 8.12 Power in three-phase circuits
    13. 8.13 Power measurement in three-phase circuits
    14. 8.14 Three-wattmeter method
    15. 8.15 Two-wattmeter method
    16. 8.16 Two-wattmeter method (balanced load)
      1. 8.16.1 Determination of power factor from wattmeter readings
      2. 8.16.2 Determination of reactive power from two wattmeter eadings
    17. 8.17 Effect of power factor on the two wattmeter readings
      1. 8.17.1 Power factor is unity (cos ɸ = 1) or ɸ = 0°
      2. 8.17.2 Power factor is 0.5 (cos ɸ = 0.5) or ɸ = 60°
      3. 8.17.3 Power factor is more than 0.5 But less than one (i.e., 1 > cos ɸ > 0.5) or 60° > ɸ > 0°
      4. 8.17.4 Power factor is less than 0.5 But more than 0 (i.e., 0.5 > cos ɸ > 0) or 90° > ɸ >60°
      5. 8.17.5 Power factor is 0 (cos ɸ = 0) or ɸ = 90°
  15. Chapter 9 Measuring Instruments
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Concept of measurements
    3. 9.3 Instruments and their classification
      1. 9.3.1 Electrical instruments
    4. 9.4 Methods of providing controlling torque
      1. 9.4.1 Spring control
      2. 9.4.2 Gravity control
    5. 9.5 Methods of providing damping torque
      1. 9.5.1 Air friction damping
      2. 9.5.2 Fluid friction damping
      3. 9.5.3 Eddy current damping
    6. 9.6 Measuring errors
      1. 9.6.1 Relative error
    7. 9.7 Errors common to all types of instruments
    8. 9.8 Moving iron instruments
      1. 9.8.1 Attraction-type moving iron instruments
      2. 9.8.2 Repulsion-type moving iron instruments
      3. 9.8.3 Advantages and disadvantages of moving iron instruments
      4. 9.8.4 Errors in moving iron instruments
      5. 9.8.5 Applications of moving iron instruments
    9. 9.9 Permanent magnet moving coil instruments
      1. 9.9.1 Principle
      2. 9.9.2 Construction
      3. 9.9.3 Working
      4. 9.9.4 Deflecting torque
      5. 9.9.5 Advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet moving coil instruments
      6. 9.9.6 Errors in permanent magnet moving coil instruments
      7. 9.9.7 Range
    10. 9.10 Difference between ammeter and voltmeter
    11. 9.11 Extension of range of ammeters and voltmeters
      1. 9.11.1 Extension of ammeter range
      2. 9.11.2 Extension of voltmeter range
    12. 9.12 Dynamometer-type instruments
      1. 9.12.1 Dynamometer-type wattmeters
    13. 9.13 Induction-type instruments
      1. 9.13.1 Induction-type wattmeter
      2. 9.13.2 Comparison between dynamometer and induction-type wattmeters
      3. 9.13.3 Induction-type single-phase energy meter
    14. 9.14 Name plate of energy meter
    15. 9.15 Connections of single-phase energy meter to supply power to a domestic consumer
    16. 9.16 Difference between wattmeter and energy meter
    17. 9.17 Digital multimeter
  16. Chapter 10 Single-phase Transformers
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Transformer
      1. 10.2.1 Necessity
      2. 10.2.2 Applications
    3. 10.3 Working principle of a transformer
    4. 10.4 Construction of a single-phase small rating transformer
      1. 10.4.1 Core-type transformers
      2. 10.4.2 Shell-type transformers
      3. 10.4.3 Berry-type transformers
    5. 10.5 An ideal transformer
      1. 10.5.1 Behaviour and phasor diagram
    6. 10.6 Transformer on dc
    7. 10.7 EMF equation
    8. 10.8 Transformer on no-load
    9. 10.9 Transformer on load
    10. 10.10 Phasor diagram of a loaded transformer
    11. 10.11 Transformer with winding resistance
    12. 10.12 Mutual and leakage fluxes
    13. 10.13 Equivalent reactance
    14. 10.14 Actual transformer
    15. 10.15 Simplified equivalent circuit
      1. 10.15.1 Equivalent circuit when all the quantities are referred to secondary
      2. 10.15.2 Equivalent circuit when all the quantities are referred to primary
    16. 10.16 Expression for no-load secondary voltage
      1. 10.16.1 Approximate expression
      2. 10.16.2 Exact expression
    17. 10.17 Voltage regulation
    18. 10.18 Approximate expression for voltage regulation
    19. 10.19 Losses in a transformer
    20. 10.20 Efficiency of a transformer
    21. 10.21 Condition for maximum efficiency
    22. 10.22 All-day efficiency
    23. 10.23 Transformer tests
      1. 10.23.1 Open-circuit or no-load test
      2. 10.23.2 Short circuit test
    24. 10.24 Autotransformers
      1. 10.24.1 Construction
      2. 10.24.2 Working
    25. 10.25 Autotransformer v/s potential divider
    26. 10.26 Saving of copper in an autotransformer
    27. 10.27 Advantages of autotransformer over two-winding transformer
    28. 10.28 Disadvantages of autotransformers
    29. 10.29 Applications of autotransformers
    30. 10.30 Classification of transformers
    31. 10.31 Power transformer and its auxiliaries
  17. Chapter 11 DC Machines (Generators and Motors)
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Electromechanical energy conversion devices (motors and generators)
    3. 11.3 Electric generator and motor
      1. 11.3.1 Generator
      2. 11.3.2 Motor
    4. 11.4 Main constructional features
    5. 11.5 Armature resistance
    6. 11.6 Simple loop generator and function of commutator
      1. 11.6.1 Commutator action
    7. 11.7 EMF equation
    8. 11.8 Types of dc generators
    9. 11.9 Separately excited dc generators
    10. 11.10 Self-excited dc generators
      1. 11.10.1 Cumulative and differential compound-wound generators
    11. 11.11 Voltage build-up in shunt generators
    12. 11.12 Critical field resistance of a dc shunt generator
    13. 11.13 Causes of failure to build-up voltage in a generator
      1. 11.13.1 Rectification
    14. 11.14 DC motor
    15. 11.15 Working principle of dc motors
      1. 11.15.1 Function of a commutator
    16. 11.16 Back emf
      1. 11.16.1 Significance of back emf
    17. 11.17 Torque equation
    18. 11.18 Shaft torque
      1. 11.18.1 Brake horse power
    19. 11.19 Comparison of generator and motor action
    20. 11.20 Types of dc motors
      1. 11.20.1 Separately excited dc motors
      2. 11.20.2 Self-excited dc motors
    21. 11.21 Characteristics of dc motors
    22. 11.22 Characteristics of shunt motors
    23. 11.23 Characteristics of series motors
    24. 11.24 Characteristics of compound motors
    25. 11.25 Applications and selection of dc motors
    26. 11.26 Necessity of starter for a dc motor
    27. 11.27 Starters for dc shunt and compound-wound motors
    28. 11.28 Three-point shunt motor starter
      1. 11.28.1 Operation
      2. 11.28.2 No-volt release coil and its function
      3. 11.28.3 Overload release coil and its function
    29. 11.29 Losses in a dc machine
      1. 11.29.1 Copper losses
      2. 11.29.2 Iron losses
      3. 11.29.3 Mechanical losses
    30. 11.30 Constant and variable losses
    31. 11.31 Stray losses
    32. 11.32 Power flow diagram
    33. 11.33 Efficiency of a dc machine
      1. 11.33.1 Machine working as a generator
      2. 11.33.2 Machine working as a motor
  18. Chapter 12 Three-Phase Induction Motors
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Constructional features of a three-phase induction motor
    3. 12.3 Production of revolving field
    4. 12.4 Principle of operation
      1. 12.4.1 Alternate explanation
    5. 12.5 Reversal of direction of rotation of three-phase induction motors
    6. 12.6 Slip
      1. 12.6.1 Importance of slip
    7. 12.7 Frequency of rotor currents
    8. 12.8 Speed of rotor field or mmf
    9. 12.9 Rotor emf
    10. 12.10 Rotor resistance
    11. 12.11 Rotor reactance
    12. 12.12 Rotor impedance
    13. 12.13 Rotor current and power factor
    14. 12.14 Simplified equivalent circuit of rotor
    15. 12.15 Stator parameters
    16. 12.16 Induction motor on no-load (rotor circuit open)
    17. 12.17 Induction motor on load
      1. 12.17.1 Causes of low-power factor
    18. 12.18 Losses in an induction motor
    19. 12.19 Power flow diagram
    20. 12.20 Relation between rotor copper loss, slip, and rotor input
    21. 12.21 Rotor efficiency
    22. 12.22 Torque developed by an induction motor
    23. 12.23 Condition for maximum torque and equation for maximum torque
    24. 12.24 Starting torque
    25. 12.25 Ratio of starting to maximum torque
    26. 12.26 Ratio of full-load torque to maximum torque
    27. 12.27 Effect of change in supply voltage on torque
    28. 12.28 Torque-slip curve
    29. 12.29 Torque-speed curve and operating region
    30. 12.30 Effect of rotor resistance on torque-slip curve
    31. 12.31 Comparison of squirrel-cage and phase-wound induction motors
    32. 12.32 Necessity of a starter
    33. 12.33 Starting methods of squirrel-cage induction motors
      1. 12.33.1 Direct on line (dol) starter
      2. 12.33.2 Star—delta starter
      3. 12.33.3 Autotransformer starter
    34. 12.34 Starting method of slip-ring induction motors
    35. 12.35 Applications of three-phase induction motors
    36. 12.36 Comparison between induction motor and synchronous motor
    37. 12.37 Speed control of induction motors
      1. 12.37.1 Speed control by changing the slip
      2. 12.37.2 Speed control by changing the supply frequency
      3. 12.37.3 Speed control by changing the poles
  19. Chapter 13 Single-Phase Induction Motors
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Nature of field produced in single-phase induction motors
    3. 13.3 Torque produced by single-phase induction motor
    4. 13.4 Types of motors
    5. 13.5 Split-phase motors
      1. 13.5.1 Construction
      2. 13.5.2 Performance and characteristics
      3. 13.5.3 Applications
      4. 13.5.4 Reversal of direction of rotation
    6. 13.6 Capacitor motors
      1. 13.6.1 Capacitor start motors
      2. 13.6.2 Capacitor run motors (fan motors)
      3. 13.6.3 Capacitor start and capacitor run motors
    7. 13.7 Shaded pole motor
      1. 13.7.1 Construction
      2. 13.7.2 Principle
      3. 13.7.3 Performance and characteristics
    8. 13.8 Reluctance start motor
    9. 13.9 Ac series motor or commutator motor
      1. 13.9.1 Performance and characteristics
    10. 13.10 Universal motor
      1. 13.10.1 Construction
      2. 13.10.2 Principle
      3. 13.10.3 Working
      4. 13.10.4 Applications
    11. 13.11 Speed control of single-phase induction motors (fan regulator)
  20. Chapter 14 Three-Phase Synchronous Machines
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Synchronous machine
    3. 14.3 Basic principles
    4. 14.4 Generator and motor action
    5. 14.5 Production of sinusoidal alternating emf
    6. 14.6 Relation between frequency speed and number of poles
    7. 14.7 Constructional features of synchronous machines
    8. 14.8 Advantages of rotating field system over stationary field system
    9. 14.9 Three-phase synchronous machines
    10. 14.10 EMF equation
    11. 14.11 Working principle of a three-phase synchronous motor
    12. 14.12 Synchronous motor on load
    13. 14.13 Effect of change in excitation
    14. 14.14 V-curves
    15. 14.15 Application of synchronous motor as a synchronous condenser
    16. 14.16 Characteristics of synchronous motor
    17. 14.17 Methods of starting of synchronous motors
    18. 14.18 Hunting
    19. 14.19 Applications of synchronous motors
  21. Notes
  22. Acknowledgements
  23. Copyright
  24. Back Cover