The Phase of Integration

When we consider the phase of integration, the important thing to bear in mind is the development of the social subsystem and its integration with the already developed economic and technical subsystems. This leads us to an entirely new concept of organization, which seeks to make it possible for every employee within the organization to be able and willing to act intelligently in the interests of the whole. This aim can be achieved only a step at a time.

Requirements of the third phase

The third phase will have to give answers to the following problems of the second phase.


With regard to internal communications, the line of command is too long. The company objective becomes vague and is replaced by sub-objectives. Reporting upward breaks down at every level; hardly any information is available at the top about what is really going on a few levels lower down. Horizontal interdepartmental communication is hampered by a specific deafness to the language and basic mentality of others. With regard to external communications, live contact with the customer or consumer is lost. The manufactured product or standardized packaged services, rather than the solution of problems for others, are in the foreground. Contact with the authorities and the trade unions has become antagonistic. A model of the third phase will have to reveal new possibilities for internal and external relations.

Process management

The process of accumulating value between input ...

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