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Bioinformatics and Biomarker Discovery: "Omic" Data Analysis for Personalized Medicine

Book Description

This book is designed to introduce biologists, clinicians and computational researchers to fundamental data analysis principles, techniques and tools for supporting the discovery of biomarkers and the implementation of diagnostic/prognostic systems.

The focus of the book is on how fundamental statistical and data mining approaches can support biomarker discovery and evaluation, emphasising applications based on different types of "omic" data. The book also discusses design factors, requirements and techniques for disease screening, diagnostic and prognostic applications.

Readers are provided with the knowledge needed to assess the requirements, computational approaches and outputs in disease biomarker research. Commentaries from guest experts are also included, containing detailed discussions of methodologies and applications based on specific types of "omic" data, as well as their integration. Covers the main range of data sources currently used for biomarker discovery

  • Covers the main range of data sources currently used for biomarker discovery

  • Puts emphasis on concepts, design principles and methodologies that can be extended or tailored to more specific applications

  • Offers principles and methods for assessing the bioinformatic/biostatistic limitations, strengths and challenges in biomarker discovery studies

  • Discusses systems biology approaches and applications

  • Includes expert chapter commentaries to further discuss relevance of techniques, summarize biological/clinical implications and provide alternative interpretations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Author and guest contributor biographies
    1. Guest contributor biographies
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. Preface
  8. 1: Biomarkers and bioinformatics
    1. 1.1 Bioinformatics, translational research and personalized medicine
    2. 1.2 Biomarkers: fundamental definitions and research principles
    3. 1.3 Clinical resources for biomarker studies
    4. 1.4 Molecular biology data sources for biomarker research
    5. 1.5 Basic computational approaches to biomarker discovery: key applications and challenges
    6. 1.6 Examples of biomarkers and applications
    7. 1.7 What is next?
  9. 2: Review of fundamental statistical concepts
    1. 2.1 Basic concepts and problems
    2. 2.2 Hypothesis testing and group comparison
    3. 2.3 Assessing statistical significance in multiple-hypotheses testing
    4. 2.4 Correlation
    5. 2.5 Regression and classification: basic concepts
    6. 2.6 Survival analysis methods
    7. 2.7 Assessing predictive quality
    8. 2.8 Data sample size estimation
    9. 2.9 Common pitfalls and misinterpretations
  10. 3: Biomarker-based prediction models: design and interpretation principles
    1. 3.1 Biomarker discovery and prediction model development
    2. 3.2 Evaluation of biomarker-based prediction models
    3. 3.3 Overview of data mining and key biomarker-based classification techniques
    4. 3.4 Feature selection for biomarker discovery
    5. 3.5 Critical design and interpretation factors
  11. 4: An introduction to the discovery and analysis of genotype-phenotype associations
    1. 4.1 Introduction: sources of genomic variation
    2. 4.2 Fundamental biological and statistical concepts
    3. 4.3 Multi-stage case-control analysis
    4. 4.4 SNPs data analysis: additional concepts, approaches and applications
    5. 4.5 CNV data analysis: additional concepts, approaches and applications
    6. 4.6 Key problems and challenges
  12. Guest commentary on chapter 4: Integrative approaches to genotype-phenotype association discovery
    1. References
  13. 5: Biomarkers and gene expression data analysis
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Fundamental analytical steps in gene expression profiling
    3. 5.3 Examples of advances and applications
    4. 5.4 Examples of the roles of advanced data mining and computational intelligence
    5. 5.5 Key limitations, common pitfalls and challenges
  14. Guest commentary on chapter 5: Advances in biomarker discovery with gene expression data
    1. Unsupervised clustering approaches
    2. Module-based approaches
    3. Final remarks
    4. References
  15. 6: Proteomics and metabolomics for biomarker discovery: an introduction to spectral data analysis
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Proteomics and biomarker discovery
    3. 6.3 Metabolomics and biomarker discovery
    4. 6.4 Experimental techniques for proteomics and metabolomics: an overview
    5. 6.5 More on the fundamentals of spectral data analysis
    6. 6.6 Targeted and global analyses in metabolomics
    7. 6.7 Feature transformation, selection and classification of spectral data
    8. 6.8 Key software and information resources for proteomics and metabolomics
    9. 6.9 Gaps and challenges in bioinformatics
  16. Guest commentary on chapter 6: Data integration in proteomics and metabolomics for biomarker discovery
    1. Data integration and feature selection
    2. References
  17. 7: Disease biomarkers and biological interaction networks
    1. 7.1 Network-centric views of disease biomarker discovery
    2. 7.2 Basic concepts in network analysis
    3. 7.3 Fundamental approaches to representing and inferring networks
    4. 7.4 Overview of key network-driven approaches to biomarker discovery
    5. 7.5 Network-based prognostic systems: recent research highlights
    6. 7.6 Final remarks: opportunities and obstacles in network-based biomarker research
  18. Guest commentary on chapter 7: Commentary on ‘disease biomarkers and biological interaction networks’
    1. Integrative approaches to biomarker discovery
    2. Pathway-based analysis of GWA data
    3. Integrative analysis of networks and pathways
    4. References
  19. 8: Integrative data analysis for biomarker discovery
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Data aggregation at the model input level
    3. 8.3 Model integration based on a single-source or homogeneous data sources
    4. 8.4 Data integration at the model level
    5. 8.5 Multiple heterogeneous data and model integration
    6. 8.6 Serial integration of source and models
    7. 8.7 Component- and network-centric approaches
    8. 8.8 Final remarks
  20. Guest commentary on chapter 8: Data integration: The next big hope?
    1. References
  21. 9: Information resources and software tools for biomarker discovery
    1. 9.1 Biomarker discovery frameworks: key software and information resources
    2. 9.2 Integrating and sharing resources: databases and tools
    3. 9.3 Data mining tools and platforms
    4. 9.4 Specialized information and knowledge resources
    5. 9.5 Integrative infrastructure initiatives and inter-institutional programmes
    6. 9.6 Innovation outlook: challenges and progress
  22. 10: Challenges and research directions in bioinformatics and biomarker discovery
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Better software
    3. 10.3 The clinical relevance of new biomarkers
    4. 10.4 Collaboration
    5. 10.5 Evaluating and validating biomarker models
    6. 10.6 Defining and measuring phenotypes
    7. 10.7 Documenting and reporting biomarker research
    8. 10.8 Intelligent data analysis and computational models
    9. 10.9 Integrated systems and infrastructures for biomedical computing
    10. 10.10 Open access to research information and outcomes
    11. 10.11 Systems-based approaches
    12. 10.12 Training a new generation of researchers for translational bioinformatics
    13. 10.13 Maximizing the uses of public resources
    14. 10.14 Final remarks
  23. Guest commentary (1) on chapter 10: Towards building knowledge-based assistants for intelligent data analysis in biomarker discovery
    1. References
  24. Guest commentary (2) on chapter 10: Accompanying commentary on ‘challenges and opportunities of bioinformatics in disease biomarker discovery’
    1. Introduction
    2. Biocyberinfrastructure
    3. Government regulations on biomarker discovery
    4. Computational intelligence approaches for biomarker discovery
    5. Open source data, intellectual property, and patient privacy
    6. Conclusions
    7. References
  25. References
  26. Index