Chapter 9. Web Programming
This chapter introduces a variety of Python facilities for manipulating URLs, opening documents in web browsers, submitting HTTP requests to web servers, and executing programs on web servers to respond to HTTP requests. Along the way we will also look at the foundations of the socket technology that underlies web interactions and the basics of constructing HTML forms to use as an interface to server-based programs.
Manipulating URLs: urllib.parse
provides functions for manipulating URL strings. The general
form of a URL is:
fragment, which doesn’t usually
appear if the URL includes a
query, is a
reference to a particular place within a web page. You may not have seen
or noticed the
portion of a URL before; it is not usually part of URLs visible to a
browser’s user, appearing—relatively rarely—as part of the value
href attributes in HTML
network_location can be further
dissected into the following components:
combination is a way of supplying login information to sites that accept
this primitive kind of authentication. The
needs to be included whenever the server program that responds to a
request for the given
scheme is listening on a
nonstandard port number. We’ll see plenty of concrete examples of various
forms of URLs in this chapter.
Certain characters are “reserved” for use in URL syntax ...