Biomaterials for MEMS

Book Description

This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.

Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge in biomaterials. The topics include fabrication of devices using biomaterials; biocompatible coatings and issues; thin-film biomaterials and MEMS for tissue engineering; and applications involving MEMS and biomaterials.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Preface
  3. Contents
  4. Chapter One Introduction
    1. 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 1.2 MICROMACHINING OF BIOMATERIALS
    3. 1.3 BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES
    4. 1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
  5. Chapter Two Spider Silk as a MEMS Material
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 THIN-FILM SPIDER SILK PREPARATION
    3. 2.3 CHARACTERIZATION
      1. 2.3.1 SEM and EDS
      2. 2.3.2 TEM
      3. 2.3.3 FTIR
      4. 2.3.4 Squid
      5. 2.3.5 Micromachining and Mechanical Testing of a Spider Silk Microbridge
      6. 2.3.6 Actuation of a Magnetic Spider Silk Microstructure
    4. 2.4 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
    5. 2.5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  6. Chapter Three Biodegradable Elastomeric Polymers and MEMS in Tissue Engineering
    1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION
      1. 3.1.1 Tissue Engineering
      2. 3.1.2 Mechanical Considerations for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
    2. 3.2 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR BIODEGRADABLE ELASTOMERIC POLYMERS
      1. 3.2.1 Polymerization Mechanisms
      2. 3.2.2 Methods to Incorporate Elasticity
      3. 3.2.3 Design Concerns
        1. 3.2.3.1 Biocompatibility
        2. 3.2.3.2 Important Mechanical Properties
        3. 3.2.3.3 Degradation Rate
    3. 3.3 BIODEGRADABLE ELASTOMERIC POLYMERS
      1. 3.3.1 Polyesters
        1. 3.3.1.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)
        2. 3.3.1.2 Poly(glycerol–sebacate) (PGS)
        3. 3.3.1.3 Poly(glycerol sebacate)acrylate (PGSA)
        4. 3.3.1.4 Poly(diol–citrate) (POC)
        5. 3.3.1.5 Poly(PEG–co–CA) (PEC)
        6. 3.3.1.6 Poly((1,2–propanediol–sebacate)–citrate) (PPSC)
        7. 3.3.1.7 Poly(1,8–octanediol malate) (POM)
        8. 3.3.1.8 Poly(alkylene maleate citrates) (PAMCs)58
        9. 3.3.1.9 Crosslinked Urethane-Doped Polyesters59,60
      2. 3.3.2 Polyurethanes
        1. 3.3.2.1 Polyester–urethanes
        2. 3.3.2.2 PCL–based polyester urethanes
        3. 3.3.2.3 Poly(ester–ether) urethanes
      3. 3.3.3 Polycarbonates
        1. 3.3.3.1 Poly(D,L Lactide–co–1,3–trimethylene carbonate)
        2. 3.3.3.2 Poly (ε–caprolactone–co–1,3–trimethylene carbonate)
    4. 3.4 MEMS PRINCIPLES IN TISSUE ENGINEERING
    5. 3.5 MEMS APPLICATIONS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING
    6. 3.6 OUTLOOK (1/2)
    7. 3.6 OUTLOOK (2/2)
  7. Chapter Four MEMS in the Nervous System
    1. 4.1 IN VITRO DEVICES
      1. 4.1.1 Microelectrode Arrays
      2. 4.1.2 Microperfusion Devices
      3. 4.1.3 Microfluidic Devices
    2. 4.2 IN VIVO DEVICES
      1. 4.2.1 The Utah Electrode Array
      2. 4.2.2 Michigan Probes
      3. 4.2.3 Custom Electrodes and Combination Devices
      4. 4.2.4 Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes
      5. 4.2.5 Peripheral Prosthetic Devices
      6. 4.2.6 Visual Prosthetics
      7. 4.2.7 Auditory Prosthetics
      8. 4.2.8 Spinal Cord Electrodes
      9. 4.2.9 Brain Computer Interfaces
    3. 4.3 DEVICE CONCERNS AND TISSUE RESPONSE
    4. 4.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS (1/2)
    5. 4.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS (2/2)
  8. Chapter Five Hydrogel-Based Microfluidic Cell Culture
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
      1. 5.1.1 Traditional Cell Culture Methods
      2. 5.1.2 Two-dimensional Versus Three-dimensional Culture Methods
      3. 5.1.3 Microscale Cell Culture Using Hydrogels
    2. 5.2 HYDROGELS
      1. 5.2.1 Naturally Derived Hydrogels
      2. 5.2.2 Alginate
      3. 5.2.3 Agarose
      4. 5.2.4 Synthetic Hydrogels
      5. 5.2.5 Pluronic
      6. 5.2.6 N-isopropylacrylamide Polymers (NiPAAm)
    3. 5.3 MICROFABRICATION
    4. 5.4 HYDROGEL-BASED MICROFLUIDIC CELL CULTURE
      1. 5.4.1 On-chip Alginate Cell Encapsulation
      2. 5.4.2 Microfluidic Agarose Cell Culture
      3. 5.4.3 Droplet Encapsulation
      4. 5.4.4 Other Configurations
      5. 5.4.5 Transport Considerations
    5. 5.5 APPLICATIONS
    6. 5.6 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK (1/2)
    7. 5.6 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK (2/2)
  9. Chapter Six Flow Control in Biomedical Microdevices using Thermally Responsive Fluids
    1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 6.2 TRANSPORT IN MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS
    3. 6.3 FLOW CONTROL MECHANISMS
      1. 6.3.1 Microvalve Principles
      2. 6.3.2 Hydrogel-based Microvalve Principles
    4. 6.4 THERMALLY RESPONSIVE FLUIDS FOR MICROFLOW CONTROL
      1. 6.4.1 Temperature Responsive Materials
      2. 6.4.2 Properties of Pluronic Solutions
        1. 6.4.2.1 Phase Transition of Pluronic Solutions
        2. 6.4.2.2 Rheological Characterization of Pluronic Solutions
        3. 6.4.2.3 Effect of Ions on the Gelation Temperature of Pluronic Solutions
        4. 6.4.2.4 Biocompatibility of Pluronic Solutions
    5. 6.5 FLOW CONTROL USING THERMALLY RESPONSIVE FLUIDS
      1. 6.5.1 Active Valving
        1. 6.5.1.1 Principle of an Active Thermal Hydrogel Valve
        2. 6.5.1.2 Microdevice Design and Fabrication
        3. 6.5.1.3 Valve Performance
      2. 6.5.2 Passive Valving
        1. 6.5.2.1 Concept for Passive Flow Control
        2. 6.5.2.2 Demonstration of Passive Valving
        3. 6.5.2.3 Discussion of the Passive Flow Control Mechanism
      3. 6.5.3 Cross-Channel Transport
        1. 6.5.3.1 Concept of Cross-Channel Transport using a Gel Wall
        2. 6.5.3.2 Generation of a Gel Wall in a Microchannel
        3. 6.5.3.3 Discussion of the Wall Motion
    6. 6.6 CONCLUSIONS (1/2)
    7. 6.6 CONCLUSIONS (2/2)
  10. Chapter Seven Application of MEMS in Drug Delivery: The Dynamic Between Biocompatibility and Biofunctionality
    1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
      1. 7.1.1 Current Therapies in Drug Delivery
      2. 7.1.2 The BioMEMS Solution
      3. 7.1.3 The Host-device Continuum
    2. 7.2 BIOMEMS IN DRUG DELIVERY: THE STATE OF THE FIELD
      1. 7.2.1 Acceptance of BioMEMS
      2. 7.2.2 The state of the BioMEMS Field
        1. 7.2.2.1 Transdermal BioMEMS for Drug Delivery
        2. 7.2.2.2 Totally Implantable Drug Delivery Microsystems
    3. 7.3 THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND BIOFUNCTIONALITY
      1. 7.3.1 Overview
      2. 7.3.2 Tissue Biocompatibility and Effect on Biofunctionality (1/2)
      3. 7.3.2 Tissue Biocompatibility and Effect on Biofunctionality (2/2)
      4. 7.3.3 Hemocompatibility and Effect on Biofunctionality
    4. 7.4 BIOMEMS DESIGN PARAMETERS AFFECTING BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND BIOFUNCTIONALITY
      1. 7.4.1 Material selection
      2. 7.4.2 Fabrication Methods
    5. 7.5 BioMEMS IN DRUG DELIVERY: THE REAL
    6. 7.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS (1/2)
    7. 7.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS (2/2)
  11. Chapter Eight Polymer-Based Biocompatible Surface Coatings
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 NON-FOULING SURFACES BASED ON POLY(ETHYLENEGLYCOL)
      1. 8.2.1 Physical Adsorption of PEG-containing Copolymers
        1. 8.2.1.1 Hydrophobic Adsorption
        2. 8.2.1.2 Electrostatic Adsorption
      2. 8.2.2 Chemisorption of PEG Containing Thiol or Sulfide Groups
      3. 8.2.3 Covalent Grafting of Poly (ethyelene glycol)
      4. 8.2.4 Surface Initiated Polymerization of PEG-containing Monomers
    3. 8.3 NON-FOULING SURFACES BASED ON ZWITTERIONIC GROUPS
      1. 8.3.1 Self-assembled Monolayers Containing Zwitterionic Groups
      2. 8.3.2 Surface Initiated Polymerization of Zwitterionic Group Containing Monomers
    4. 8.4 POLY(METH)ACRYLATE BASED NON-FOULING SURFACES
    5. 8.5 POLY(METH)ACRYLAMIDE BASED NON-FOULING SURFACES
    6. 8.6 HYPERBRANCHED POLYGLYCIDOL BASED NON-FOULING SURFACES
    7. 8.7 PEPTIDE AND PROTEIN GRAFTED POLYMERIC SURFACES
    8. 8.8 CONCLUSIONS (1/2)
    9. 8.8 CONCLUSIONS (2/2)
  12. Chapter Nine Vibration-based Anti-Biofouling of Implants
    1. 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 9.2 PROTEINS VISUALIZATION
    3. 9.3 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PROTEINS AND SURFACE (1/2)
    4. 9.3 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PROTEINS AND SURFACE (2/2)
    5. 9.4 SHEAR STRESS ON THE PROTEIN
    6. 9.5 MICROFABRICATION
    7. 9.6 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
  13. Chapter Ten Characterization of Biomaterials
    1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 10.2 BULK ANALYSIS METHODS
      1. 10.2.1 X-ray Micro-computed Tomography
      2. 10.2.2 X-ray Microdiffraction Technique
    3. 10.3 SURFACE ANALYSIS METHODS
      1. 10.3.1 Microscopic Methods
        1. 10.3.1.1 Electron Microscopy
        2. 10.3.1.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
        3. 10.3.1.3 Atomic Force Microscopy
        4. 10.3.1.4 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
      2. 10.3.2 Spectroscopy Methods
        1. 10.3.2.1 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
        2. 10.3.2.2 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
        3. 10.3.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy
      3. 10.3.3 Microspectroscopy and Spectral Imaging Methods
        1. 10.3.3.1 Infrared Microspetroscopic Imaging
        2. 10.3.3.2 Raman Microspectroscopic Imaging
      4. 10.3.4 Thermodynamic Methods
      5. 10.3.5 Emerging Optical Methods for in vivo Analysis
        1. 10.3.5.1 Multi-Photon Excitation Microscopy
        2. 10.3.5.2 Optical Coherence Tomography
    4. 10.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS (1/2)
    5. 10.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS (2/2)
  14. Color Inserts (1/6)
  15. Color Inserts (2/6)
  16. Color Inserts (3/6)
  17. Color Inserts (4/6)
  18. Color Inserts (5/6)
  19. Color Inserts (6/6)
  20. Back Cover

Product Information

  • Title: Biomaterials for MEMS
  • Author(s): Mu Chiao, Jung-Chih Chiao
  • Release date: March 2011
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9789814241472