References 7
be addressed. The concerns include:
(1) bio-mechanical compatibility that ensures the mechanical form factor of the
devices have no damage to the tissues;
(2) electrical compatibility that ensures the electricity or electromagnetic energy
does not harm the tissues;
(3) thermal compatibility that ensures the local temperature does not rise to burn
the tissues; and
(4) biocompatibility that ensures minimum biofouling.
Thirdly, many devices with sensors to measure physiological parameters or ac-
tuators to dispense drugs or deliver stimuli will have a need for control. Often
electronic control mechanisms for either wireless or locally wired solutions are
needed. Finally, integrated functionalities or capabilities will be required in order
to achieve a small platform not only to fit the implantation site but also to address
the implementation methods that are clinically beneficial to the patients. Many
of these implemtnation methods are minimally invasive procedures or by natural
orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES),
for which the device designs
also need to be mechanically compatible to the commonly used implementation
Facing the great challenges in engineering to satisfy the rigorous specifications
for implantable devices, the combination of MEMS techniques and biomaterials
provides a new direction. The advantages of miniaturization, integration, elec-
trical functionalities and cost-effectiveness of manufacturing in MEMS, and the
flexibility, deformability, capabilities and biocompatibility in biomaterials offer
an attractive solution to the dire challenges mentioned before. However, due to
such a relatively young research topic and fast-growing academic and industrial
research societies, it is difficult to provide a conventional review of the established
knowledge. In this book, we aim to illustrate some of the advanced technologies
that involve the cross-disciplinary between biomaterials and MEMS technologies.
The first half of the book, Chap. 2 to Chap. 6, introduces materials, devices and
applications of biomaterials. The second half of the book, Chap. 7 to Chap. 10,
describes biocompatibility issues and characterizing of biomaterials.
Jessica Melin and Stephen R Quake. Microfluidic large-scale integration: the evolution
of design rules for biological automation. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 36:213–231,
Xinwen Wang, Peter Lin, Qizhi Yao, and Changyi Chen. Development of small-diameter
vascular grafts. World J Surg, 31(4):682–689, Apr 2007.
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