276 Color Inserts
Figure 10.5 Fibronectin formation (green) and actin filament formation (red) in epithelial
mHepR1 cells cultured on the biomaterial PHB (below) compared to control cultures
(above). Note that in control cultures the actin filaments are structured in fibrils showing
colocalization with fibronectin (arrow head) in contrast to PHB cultured cells, where the
organization of actin filaments is more irregular and the colocalization of fibronectin with
actin is lost (arrow head) (CLSM images taken with LSM 410, Carl Zeiss Jena). With
permission from.
33
Figure 10.9 FT-IR images of rabbit osteochondral defect at 6 weeks post-repair with TP
508 protein. The defect repair cartilage has lower collagen content (amide I area) compared
to the adjacent articular cartilage, but also has regions with PG content (PG sugar ring C-O
absorbance (985–1140 cm
1
) of a similar magnitude to that in the native cartilage. There is
some orientation present in the repair cartilage, as evidenced by the layer of fibrils parallel
to the surface. For the orientation data, the boundaries on the color bar indicate the three
collagen fibril orientation categories with respect to the articular surface, corresponding to
amide I/amide II peak area ratios>2.7 (parallel fibrils), between 2.7 and 1.7 (random fibrils),
and <1.7 (perpendicular fibrils), respectively. With permission from.
53
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Color Inserts 277
Photodetector
CLSM
MPE
Pinhole
Dichroic
Mirror
Sample
Objective
Figure 10.10 Comparison of a conventional confocal microscope (CLSM) with a multi-
photon excitation (MPE) microscope.
Figure 10.11 Overlay of optical sections showing elastic fibers (green) and collagen (red)
of two TE valve leaflets, cultured under different conditions within the bioreactor system.
The differences between the tissue states were only explicitly verifiable by the use of the
MPE images. (A) TE heart valve, exposed to defined physical signals with a fixed frequency
(1 Hz) and pressure conditions (3 l/min and 60/40 mm Hg), show normal extracellular
matrix structures (bar: 20 μm). (C) Corresponding macroscopic appearance of the TE
valves. (B) TE leaflet, exposed to supra-physiologic (>200 mm Hg) pressures, revealing an
impaired matrix formation and a high amount of cell detritus (yellow). (D) Corresponding
macroscopic pictures. With permission from.
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