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Biomaterials

Book Description

Biomaterials: A Systems Approach to Engineering Concepts provides readers with a systems approach to biomaterials and materials engineering. By focusing on the mechanical needs of implants, disease states, and current clinical needs, readers are encouraged to design materials and systems targeted at specific conditions, and to identify the impact of their proposed solutions.

This inventive text is a useful resource for researchers, students, and course providers of biomaterials and biomedical engineering.

  • Provides a fully comprehensive treatment relating to the construction and use of materials in medicine
  • Presents perspectives of disease states to encourage the design of materials and systems targeted at specific conditions
  • Defines current issues experienced by clinics to enable optimized engineering solutions

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Author Bio
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1. Cell Biology
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Cell Composition and Make-Up
    4. 1.3 Cell Classifications
    5. 1.4 Cells Associated With Specific Organs and Systems
    6. 1.5 Cells Found with the Nervous System
    7. 1.6 Cells Found in Fibrous, Bony, and Cartilage Connective Tissues
    8. 1.7 Reclassifying Cells Based on Organ Function and Physiology
    9. 1.8 Observation of Cell Size and Morphology: Microscopy
    10. 1.9 Bacterial Cell Types
    11. 1.10 Conclusions
    12. 1.11 Problems
    13. References
  10. Chapter 2. Cell Expression: Proteins and Their Characterization
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Protein Molecular Weight
    4. 2.3 Protein Polydispersity
    5. 2.4 Biochemical Determination of Molecular Weight
    6. 2.5 Protein Thermodynamics
    7. 2.6 Typical Proteinaceous Polymers
    8. 2.7 Conclusion
    9. 2.8 Problems
    10. References
    11. Further Reading
  11. Chapter 3. Bones and Mineralized Tissues
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Cortical Bone
    4. 3.3 Cancellous (Spongy Bone)
    5. 3.4 Teeth
    6. 3.5 Conclusions
    7. 3.6 Problems
    8. References
  12. Chapter 4. Connective and Soft Tissues
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Protein Structure and Composition in the Circulatory System
    4. 4.3 Protein Structure of Valvular Tissue and Leaflets
    5. 4.4 Dermal Tissues, Including Hair and Nerves
    6. 4.5 Hair
    7. 4.6 Nails
    8. 4.7 Muscle Tissues
    9. 4.8 Looking Ahead
    10. 4.9 Conclusions
    11. 4.10 Problems
    12. References
  13. Chapter 5. Property Assessments of Tissues
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Mechanical Properties
    4. 5.3 How Much Does the Humerus Bone Length Shrink Upon Loading With the Bar?
    5. 5.4 Strength
    6. 5.5 Bending
    7. 5.6 Torsion
    8. 5.7 Cyclic Loading and Fatigue Resistance
    9. 5.8 Relationship to Natural Materials
    10. 5.9 Viscoelasticity
    11. 5.10 Time-Dependent Stress–Strain Behavior
    12. 5.11 Physical Property Determinations
    13. 5.12 Optical Properties
    14. 5.13 Electrical Properties of Tissues
    15. 5.14 Conclusions
    16. 5.15 Problems
    17. References
  14. Chapter 6. Environmental Effects on Natural Tissues
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Arteriosclerosis
    4. 6.3 Kidney Disease
    5. 6.4 Obesity
    6. 6.5 Osteoporosis
    7. 6.6 Valvular Diseases
    8. 6.7 Cancer
    9. 6.8 Amyloid Diseases
    10. 6.9 Skin: How is Aging Manifested?
    11. 6.10 Burns and Prior Connective Tissue Trauma
    12. 6.11 Conclusions and Final Thoughts
    13. 6.12 Problems
    14. References
  15. Chapter 7. Metallic Biomaterials
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Characterizing Phase Structure
    4. 7.3 Metallic Biomaterial Types
    5. 7.4 Mechanical Properties
    6. 7.5 Schemes to Stress Shielding Further?
    7. 7.6 Processing
    8. 7.7 Conclusion
    9. 7.8 Problems
    10. References
  16. Chapter 8. Ceramic Biomaterials
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 CaHAP
    4. 8.3 Aluminum Oxide: Al2O3
    5. 8.4 Zirconia: ZrO2
    6. 8.5 Porcelains
    7. 8.6 Carbon
    8. 8.7 Processing Schemes and Structures
    9. 8.8 Mechanical and Physical Properties
    10. 8.9 Particulate Bioceramics
    11. 8.10 Bioactive Ceramic Structures
    12. 8.11 Relationship With Environment
    13. 8.12 Functional Usage
    14. 8.13 Conclusion
    15. 8.14 Problems
    16. References
  17. Chapter 9. Polymeric Biomaterials
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Phase Behavior of Polymers
    4. 9.3 Classes of Common Biomedical Polymers
    5. 9.4 Polyethers
    6. 9.5 Silicones
    7. 9.6 Natural Polymers
    8. 9.7 Other Polymers
    9. 9.8 Hydrogels, Scaffolds, and Other Degrading Structures
    10. 9.9 Polymeric Sutures
    11. 9.10 Drug Delivery: Hydrophilic and Amphiphilic Polymers as Vehicles
    12. 9.11 Conclusions
    13. 9.12 Problems
    14. References
  18. Chapter 10. Nanomaterials and Phase Contrast Imaging Agents
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 X-ray Diagnostics and Phase Contrast Agents
    4. 10.3 MRI Phase Contrast Agents
    5. 10.4 PET Imaging
    6. 10.5 Conclusion
    7. 10.6 Problems
    8. References
  19. Chapter 11. Orthopedics
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Trauma-Induced Fracture and Repair Strategies
    4. 11.3 Trauma and Disease in Articulating Joints
    5. 11.4 Joint Types
    6. 11.5 The Mechanics of Joint Replacement
    7. 11.6 The Tribology of Joint Replacements: Impact on Joint Lifetime
    8. 11.7 Point to the Future
    9. 11.8 Thought Exercise: Short-Term Surgical Viability Versus Long-Term Survival
    10. 11.9 Other Schemes to Reduce the Wear on Sterilized Surfaces
    11. 11.10 Conclusions
    12. 11.11 Problems
    13. References
  20. Chapter 12. Neural Interventions
    1. Abstract
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Aneurysm and Cerebrovascular Modulation
    4. 12.3 Neural Probes and Stimulators
    5. 12.4 Conclusion
    6. 12.5 Problems
    7. References
  21. Chapter 13. Cardiovascular Interventions
    1. Abstract
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Valvular Repairs: Rationale for Intervention: Murmurs, Regurgitation, Congestive Heart Failure
    4. 13.3 Prosthetic and Bioprosthetic Replacement Valves
    5. 13.4 Outcomes
    6. 13.5 Interchamber Defects
    7. 13.6 Vascular Grafts
    8. 13.7 Stents
    9. 13.8 Drug Eluting Stents
    10. 13.9 Added Constraints: Pediatric Cardiac Interventions
    11. 13.10 Pacemakers, Defibrillators, and Associated Hardware
    12. 13.11 Conclusions
    13. 13.12 Pointing to the Future
    14. 13.13 Problems
    15. References
  22. Chapter 14. Artificial Organs
    1. Abstract
    2. 14.1 Kidney: Dialysis
    3. 14.2 Artificial Pancreas
    4. 14.3 Artificial Bladders
    5. 14.4 Pivoting to the future
    6. 14.5 Problems
    7. References
  23. Chapter 15. Special Topics: Assays Applied to Both Health and Sports
    1. Abstract
    2. 15.1 Introduction and Historical Basis
    3. 15.2 What Can be Learned From Urinalysis?
    4. 15.3 Blood Doping
    5. 15.4 Conclusion
    6. 15.5 Problems and Conceptual Questions
    7. References
  24. Postface
  25. Index