For the C-Level Executive
A Biometrics Project Management Guide
Specically, this chapter is divided into the following topics:
1. Biometric technology system architecture
2. Biometric system analysis and design processes (the biometrics
project management section)
3. Biometric networking topologies
This chapter is not intended to be a substitute for professional project
management advice. Rather, the goal is to give the C-level executive the
starting point he or she needs in which to determine the serious questions
that need to get asked (and answered) to get the maximum use of his or
her security budget.
Generally speaking, biometric devices, no matter how large or small they
might be, are actually quite complex, even though that may also look
very simple in nature on the outside in terms of design and ergonom-
ics. However, the exact technology components will vary from vendor
to vendor, but all biometric technologies (even whether it is physical- or
behavioral-based) consist of the following subcomponents:
1. Sensing and data acquisition
2. Signal and image processing
3. Data storage
4. Template matching
5. Threshold decision making
6. Administration decision making
7. Data (biometric template) transmission
Each of these subcomponents will be reviewed in detail in this chapter,
rst starting with the sensing and data subcomponent. In its simplest
terms, this subcomponent involves the capture and the extraction of raw
biometric data (in particular the image), and from that point onward, con-
verting those raw data (the image) into a form that can be used for further
processing from within the particular biometric technology.
This subcomponent can collect two types of raw data, and this hap-
pens at rst in the enrollment stage and then at the secondary verication
and/or identication stage. These two types of raw data that can be col-
lected are dened as follows:
1. Probe data: These are the rst series of raw data to be collected, and
they are used to create the enrollment template.
2. Live sample data: These are the second series of raw data to be cap-
tured, and these are used to create the subsequent verication
templates (which in turn are then used to compare against the
enrollment template for various types of verication and/or iden-
tication applications).
Since this subcomponent primarily deals with the collection of bio-
metric raw data, the way, manner, or technique in which either the physi-
cal or the behavioral biometric is presented to the sensing device thus
becomes of prime importance. Specically, in this regard, the term presen-
tation can be dened as “the submission of a single biometric sample on
the part of the user.” The factors that affect presentation can be specically
dened as “the broad category of variables affecting the way in which
the users’ inherent biometric characteristics are displayed to the sensor”
(Certied Biometrics Learning System, Module 2, Biometrics System Design and
Performance, © 2010 IEEE, pp. 34).
Therefore, the standardization process of presentation also becomes
of prime importance and involves ensuring the following to establish a
consistent, raw sample acquisition process:

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