Chapter 8



After completing this chapter, you can understand the following:

  • The definition, meaning and significance of probability.
  • The concept of addition theorem and multiplication theorem on probability and its applications.
  • Baye’s theorem and its implications towards biological decision making situations.

The concept of probability was introduced in the late seventeenth century. This concept was introduced in problems relating to the coin-tossing game and playing cards. But the probability concept is now introduced in almost all areas of study such as economics, statistics, industry, engineering, business and biology. It refers the study of events which are going to happen or not.

Before defining ...

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