I don't know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody.

Bill Cosby

If there is no differentiation, there is no innovation.

A. G. Lafley, former P&G CEO

The next three chapters will describe a set of twenty case studies of brands that attempted to develop new categories or subcategories in three industries, some not so successfully. These cases provide a good perspective of the challenges and the complexities of the task plus the huge upside of a successful effort. Collectively, the goal is to gain insight into where ideas come from, the role of trend interpretation and projection, how categories or subcategories are defined, how firms achieved success or why an idea faltered ...

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