represent one challenge to project-based working, whereby the
project’s hierarchy supersedes organisational seniority. Another
obstacle in reactive, process-based cultures is a resistance to
planning, and a mindset that IT is peripheral, rather than inte-
gral, to business projects. These hurdles are indisputably worth
overcoming, however, as acquiring project management capabil-
ities enables businesses to function effectively in project mode
while continuing to conduct their day-to-day operations
52) When working on a project, senior staff might be account-
able to a more junior project manager.
True/False/Can’t tell
53) The passage indicates that project management methodolo-
gies are at odds with those of some industries.
True/False/Can’t tell
54) Long-range planning is antithetical to the discipline of
project management.
True/False/Can’t tell
55) Training courses in planning software are sufficient for
acquiring project management expertise.
True/False/Can’t tell
IT has been used commercially for over 50 years, yet no stan-
dard terminology or system for measuring the value of IT
expenditure exists.This lack of methodology can be explained by
IT’s intangible nature and a prevailing belief that IT is a
necessary, and uncontrollable, expense. Ultimately any metric
for assessing IT investment must determine whether it has
increased income or decreased expenditure. It is far too sim-
plistic to merely consider personnel cost savings resultant from
IT investment. Similarly, to crudely define IT expenditure as
224 brilliant verbal reasoning
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