Internet development traces its roots back to the 1950s and the emergence of main-frame computers. Early computers (pictured) were stand-alone machines and did not have the means to communicate with other machines: commands, programming and data storage and transfer were carried out manually using magnetic tapes (pictured)  or punch cards (pictured).1 As the usage of computers in business and government applications grew, interactions between computers, and between computers and network terminals became necessary. Clearly there was a need for a theoretical framework and network equipment to support computer communications, which needed to be developed.
On the theoretical ...
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