Environmental damage through industrial activity can be of two types:

  1. Depletion of natural resources: Excessive use leads to the reduction in natural resources that are extracted and/or used up in the production of other goods, such as minerals, fossil fuels, etc. These resources are non-renewable. Once extracted, they cannot be replaced. Technology must find substitutes for such raw materials if further depletion of non-renewable resources is to be prevented. Depletion is thus a quantitative concept.
  2. Degradation of the natural resources: Degradation refers to the deterioration of the quality of the environment. All production creates waste and pollution right through the process of manufacturing to the ...

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