The Directive Principles of State Policy of the Indian Constitution commands the State to ensure protection and improvement of environment and to safeguard forest and wild life. The Directive Principle of State Policy on Environment has been eloquently articulated in Article 48A of the Constitution, introduced by the 42nd Amendment in 1977. It reads thus: ‘The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country’.37 Likewise, Article 51 (A)(g) lays down protection and improvement of environment as one of the fundamental duties of every citizen. This duty of citizens would mean that every citizen is duty-bound to protect and improve the natural environment ...

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