CHAPTER TWO

Asset Utilization Measurements

THIS CHAPTER FOCUSES ON the ratios and formulas that can be derived primarily from the income statement. There are several that require additional information from the balance sheet, as well as internal information, such as employee headcount, that may not be readily discernible from published financial statements. The general intent of the analysis tools presented here is to show a company's ability to sustain its sales, the level of asset and expense usage required to do so, and the sustainability of its current sales and expense levels. There are also specialized ratios that deal with such issues as sales returns, repairs and maintenance, fringe benefits, interest expense, and overhead rates.

Each of the following sections describes the uses of a ratio or formula, explains the proper method of calculation, and gives an example. Each section also discusses how each ratio or formula can be misused, skewed, or incorrectly applied.

The ratios and formulas presented in this chapter are:

Sales to Working Capital Ratio Sales to Fixed Assets Ratio Sales to Administrative Expenses Ratio Sales to Equity Ratio Sales per Person Sales Backlog Ratio Sales Returns to Gross Sales Ratio Repairs and Maintenance Expense to Fixed Assets Ratio Accumulated Depreciation to Fixed Assets Ratio Capital to Labor Ratio Fringe Benefits to Wages and Salaries Expense Sales Expenses to Sales Ratio Discretionary Cost Ratio Interest Expense to Debt Ratio Foreign ...

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