In this appendix you’ll learn:

• To understand basic number systems concepts, such as base, positional value and symbol value.

• To understand how to work with numbers represented in the binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems.

• To abbreviate binary numbers as octal numbers or hexadecimal numbers.

• To convert octal numbers and hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers.

• To convert back and forth between decimal numbers and their binary, octal and hexadecimal equivalents.

• To understand binary arithmetic and how negative binary numbers are represented using two’s complement notation.

*Here are only numbers ratified.*

—**William Shakespeare**

*Nature has some sort of arithmetic-geometrical coordinate system, because ...*

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