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C Primer Plus, Fourth Edition by Stephen Prata

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Exploring and Exploiting printf() and scanf()

The functions printf() and scanf() enable you to communicate with a program. They are called input/output functions, or I/O functions for short. They are not the only I/O functions you can use with C, but they are the most versatile. Historically, these functions, like all other functions in the C library, were not part of the definition of C. C originally left the implementation of I/O up to the compiler writers; this made it possible to better match I/O to specific machines. In the interests of compatibility, various implementations all came with versions of scanf() and printf(). However, there were occasional discrepancies between implementations. The C90 and C99 standards describe standard versions ...

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