1Design Principles for Heteroatom‐Doped Carbon Materials as Metal‐Free Catalysts

Zhenghang Zhao*, Lipeng Zhang*, Chun‐Yu Lin*, and Zhenhai Xia

University of North Texas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 1155 Union Circle #305310, Denton, TX, 76203‐5017, USA

1.1 Introduction

Renewable and clean energy conversion and storage devices are imperative to continuous energy consumption and environmental protection. At the heart of these energy conversion/storage devices, such as fuel cells, metal–air batteries, and water splitting, there are key electrochemical reactions, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), that generate electric power or ...

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