4 High‐Resolution and High‐Contrast Fluorescence Imaging with Carbon Nanomaterials for Preclinical and Clinical Applications

John Czerski and Susanta K. Sarkar

Single Molecule Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA

4.1 Introduction

Medical practice can be categorized into three broad steps. First, the doctor performs a physical examination and studies the medical history of a patient. Second, the doctor orders diagnostic tests such as blood and/or urine tests, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomographic (CT) scans for conclusive diagnosis. Finally, the doctor prescribes treatment with drug therapy and/or surgery. Imaging materials and methods that connect these three steps with acceptable cost, biotoxicity, biodispersibility, biodistribution, and bioclearance are promising, and likely to obtain regulatory and insurance approvals. We often miss this broad bird's‐eye view of the process and work with toxic materials for biomedical imaging without the long‐term possibility of adoption by medical professionals. In the case of cancer, the top killer along with the heart diseases that causes financial and emotional ruin, multimodal uses of materials are particularly helpful. Many patients would benefit from a multimodal imaging material that detects the biomarkers for cancer in blood or urine with high specificity, enhances the contrast of common imaging modalities, helps surgeons detect cancer ...

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