Chapter 5. Layer 3 Redundancy

Specifying a default gateway leads to a single point of failure. Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is one method for hosts to dynamically discover gateways, but it has issues in a highly-available environment. With Proxy ARP:

  • Hosts ARP for all destinations, even remote.

  • Router responds with its MAC.

  • Problem: Slow failover because ARP entries take minutes to timeout.

Instead of making the host responsible for choosing a new gateway, Layer 3 redundancy protocols allow two or more routers to support a shared MAC address. If the primary router is lost, the backup router assumes control of traffic forwarded to that MAC. This section refers to routers, but includes those Layer 3 switches that can also implement Layer ...

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