Chapter 4. Microstructure–property relationships
How the microstructure of the film affects its properties

Chapter Outline

4.1 Introduction86
4.2 Material Properties86
4.3 Why are Film Properties not the Same as Bulk Properties?87
4.4 Microstructural Variations88
4.4.1 Grain size and grain-boundary effects91
4.4.2 Second phases92
4.4.3 Porosity93
4.4.4 Interfaces and surface zones94
4.4.5 Graded structures95
4.4.6 Preferential orientation and texturing96
4.5 Functional Properties98
4.5.1 Relationship between ferroelectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric materials98
4.5.2 Ferroelectric (piezoelectric and pyroelectric) properties99
4.5.3 Relative permittivity102
4.5.3.1 Grain size effects in ferroelectrics104
4.5.3.2 Additional porosity and second-phase ...

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