This chapter covers the following topics:
The Seven-Step Information-Gathering Process: The process of accumulating data about a specific network environment, usually for the purpose of completing the footprinting process, mapping the attack surface, and finding ways to intrude into the environment.
Identifying Active Machines: The identification of active machines is accomplished by means of ping sweeps and port scans. Both aid in an analysis of understanding whether the machine is actively connected to the network and reachable.
OS Fingerprinting: Fingerprinting can be categorized as either active or passive. Active fingerprinting is more accurate but also more easily detected. Passive fingerprinting