xii ◾  Contents
Decisions about Conversion ........................................................151
Other Processes ..........................................................................151
Decisions about Customer Satisfaction ...................................... 152
Decisions about Customer Preferences ....................................... 152
Outcome Eectiveness and Customer Satisfaction .............................. 152
Purpose of the Output Eectiveness Measure ..................................... 154
Goals, Objectives, and Measurements................................................. 156
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 157
17  Strengths and Weaknesses............................................................. 159
Process SWOT ................................................................................... 159
Step 1: Identify Internal Strengths and Weaknesses ................... 162
Step 2: Scan the External Environment ..................................... 163
Government ..................................................................... 163
Economic .........................................................................164
Technological ...................................................................164
Step 3: Prepare the SWOT Matrix ............................................164
Step 4: Compile Strategies .........................................................164
Weaknesses .......................................................................164
reats .............................................................................. 165
Opportunities ................................................................... 165
Strategies ..........................................................................166
Step 5: Validate Goals and Objectives ........................................ 166
Conclusion ..........................................................................................166
18  Business Process Improvement Planning ...................................... 167
Purpose of Business Process Improvement Plan ..................................168
Business Process Improvement Plan Elements .....................................168
Executive Summary ................................................................... 169
e Problem ..................................................................... 169
e Solution ..................................................................... 169
Resources Needed ............................................................. 169
e Process ................................................................................ 169
Vision, Goals, and Objectives .................................................... 170
SWOT Analysis ......................................................................... 170
Project Dream Team .................................................................. 170
Risks .......................................................................................... 170
Opportunities ............................................................................ 170
Resources ................................................................................... 170
Next Steps ................................................................................. 170
Conclusion ................................................................................ 171
Contents ◾  xiii
19  Phase Gate Two ............................................................................. 173
Accomplishments of the Process Examination Team .......................... 173
Role of the Process Dream Team ........................................................ 173
20  Assumptions and Rules ................................................................. 177
Example .............................................................................................. 178
Introduction ....................................................................................... 178
Assumptions ....................................................................................... 179
Testing ................................................................................................ 179
Step 1: Identify Assumptions ..................................................... 180
Step 2: Validate Assumptions .....................................................180
Step 3: Change the Activities at Are Invalid. Replace with
New Ideas or Discard. ...............................................................180
Discard Assumptions ........................................................180
Generate New Ideas ..........................................................182
Uncertain Assumptions .................................................... 182
Step 4: For Assumptions at Hold True, What Can We Do
to Change em? ....................................................................... 182
Results ................................................................................................ 182
Rules ................................................................................................... 183
Impact ................................................................................................186
21  Improve the Process ....................................................................... 189
Alignment ........................................................................................... 190
Begin to Design .................................................................................. 190
Questions ............................................................................................ 191
Non- Value- Added Activities ................................................................ 192
Value- Added Activities ........................................................................ 193
Rules and Assumptions .......................................................................194
Constraints ......................................................................................... 194
Technology ......................................................................................... 194
Design Again ...................................................................................... 195
Benchmarking .................................................................................... 195
How to Benchmark ............................................................................196
Improvements at the Service Center .................................................... 197
Design Details .................................................................................... 198
What Next? ........................................................................................ 198
Return to the Vision, Goals, and Objectives .......................................200
Return to Stakeholders Analysis .........................................................200
Communications Plan ........................................................................200
Conclusion ..........................................................................................200
xiv ◾  Contents
22  Phase Gate ree ........................................................................... 201
Accomplishments of the Dream Team ................................................201
Role of the Process Implementation Team ..........................................201
23  Implementation Plan ..................................................................... 205
Background ........................................................................................205
Illustration: New Payroll System .........................................................205
Who: Implementation Team................................................................207
What and When: Implementation Plan ...............................................208
Implementation Budget ......................................................................208
Testing ................................................................................................209
Determine What to Do ......................................................................209
Preimplementation .............................................................................. 210
Change Management .......................................................................... 212
How to Implement.............................................................................. 212
Post Implementation ........................................................................... 213
Implementation Report ....................................................................... 213
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 213
24  Phase Gate Four .............................................................................217
25  Procedures ..................................................................................... 221
Bent Cookies ......................................................................................221
Recipe for Procedure ...........................................................................221
Purpose of Procedures .........................................................................222
Developing Procedures .......................................................................222
e Target Audience ..................................................................222
Application of the Procedures ....................................................223
Life Cycle of the Process ............................................................223
Procedures Document ........................................................................224
Writing Procedures .............................................................................225
Procedure Deployment .......................................................................225
Changing Procedures ..........................................................................226
Example: Procedure Management ......................................................227
26  Audit .............................................................................................. 229
Background ........................................................................................229
Why Audit ..........................................................................................230
Materiality and Impact .......................................................................230
Sampling ............................................................................................. 231
What to Sample .........................................................................231
How to Sample ..........................................................................231
Contents ◾  xv
Sampling Results .......................................................................232
Sampling Risk ...........................................................................232
When to Audit ....................................................................................233
Audit Team .........................................................................................233
Audit Preparation ...............................................................................234
Audit Method .....................................................................................234
Conducting the Audit .........................................................................235
Audit Findings ....................................................................................236
Recommendations ..............................................................................236
Audit Reports .....................................................................................236
Audit Meeting ....................................................................................237
Audit Check........................................................................................237
Issue Closure .......................................................................................237
Audit Evaluation and Findings ...........................................................238
Conclusion ..........................................................................................238
27  Phase Gate Five.............................................................................. 239
28  Wrap- Up ........................................................................................ 241
Final Report ........................................................................................ 241
Executive Summary ...................................................................242
Problem and Solution—the Report ...........................................242
Project Teams ............................................................................242
New Process ..............................................................................242
Stakeholders ...............................................................................243
Risks and Opportunities ............................................................243
Lessons Learned .........................................................................244
Budget Comparisons .................................................................244
Timetable ..................................................................................244
Return-on-Investments (ROI) ...................................................244
Outstanding Issues ....................................................................244
Conclusion ................................................................................244
Handover ............................................................................................ 245
Dismantling the Project Team ............................................................246
Documentation ...................................................................................246
Other Processes ...................................................................................247
Conclusion ..........................................................................................247
Appendix A: Structuring Your Workshop .............................................. 249
Well Codied .....................................................................................249
e Beginning ....................................................................................249
xvi ◾  Contents
e Middle Steps ................................................................................250
Review and Wrap- Up ......................................................................... 251
Action Plan ................................................................................ 251
Open Issues (Parking Lot) ......................................................... 251
Evaluation .................................................................................. 252
Appendix B: Workshop Tools ................................................................ 253
Brainstorming ..................................................................................... 253
How We ink .......................................................................... 253
Monkey Brain ............................................................................ 253
Gator Brain................................................................................254
Elephant Brain ...........................................................................254
Brainstorming ............................................................................254
How to Brainstorm ........................................................... 255
Group Ideas ...................................................................... 255
What Next? ...................................................................... 255
Wrap Up .................................................................................... 255
Responsibility Matrix .........................................................................256
Purpose ...................................................................................... 256
Rationale ...................................................................................256
Method ......................................................................................256
Rules to Follow ................................................................. 257
Guardian of Change (Communications Plan) ....................................258
Purpose ...................................................................................... 258
Rationale ...................................................................................258
Method ......................................................................................259
Assessment .......................................................................................... 259
Power Balls ......................................................................................... 259
Purpose ...................................................................................... 259
Rationale ................................................................................... 259
Caution......................................................................................260
Method ......................................................................................260
Appendix C: Workshop Agendas ........................................................... 263
Vision and Goals Workshop ...............................................................263
Deliverable .................................................................................263
Simple Agenda ..................................................................263
Introduction .....................................................................263
Vision ........................................................................................264
Goals .........................................................................................264

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