Chapter 5Electron emission from solids

Every practical electron beam instrument relies on a stable, long-lived electron source. The most commonly used sources extract electrons from a bulk metal or semiconductor, and accelerate the particles across a vacuum gap using the electric field of an electrode at a positive potential relative to the source. The beam thus appears to originate from an apparent source, real or virtual, seen looking back from the electron optical system.

For practical purposes this apparent source is characterized by its measurable macroscopic properties. These include beam energy, current, lateral intensity distribution, angular intensity distribution, and energy spread. These quantities are a function of the physical source ...

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