“You have to learn the rules of the game. And then you have to play better than anyone else.”
—Albert Einstein, 1879–1955, Physicist
When a fluid flows past a solid body, or the body moves through the fluid (e.g., Figure 12.1), the force (FD) exerted on the body by the fluid is proportional to the relative rate of momentum (mass flow rate × velocity = ρV2A) transported by the fluid. This can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless drag coefficient (CD), which is defined by the following equation:
ρ is the density of the fluid
V is the relative velocity between the fluid and the solid body
A is the cross-sectional area of the body normal to the velocity vector V. For ...